Ocean’s thirteen

Ocean’s Thirteen

ocean’s thirteen

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Be cool. But the Belizean lifestyle can be very healthful. You eat fresh fruit and unprocessed food. You walk more and ride less.

You stay outside in the clean, unpolluted air rather than being cooped up in a climate-controlled box all day. You go home for lunch or take a nap at mid-day.

Many people who move to Belize start feeling better within a few weeks. Quite a few lose weight.

Blood pressure levels go down. Belizeans come in every shape, background and color, but nearly all are open and friendly.

Expats in Belize are also an interesting bunch, usually with an independent streak and sometimes downright eccentric. Belize is a natural wonder.

You could spend the rest of your life just learning about the flora and fauna of the country. Belize is home to thousands of species of trees and flowers, hundreds of kinds of birds and butterflies.

The culture of Belize is wide and deep. The history of the Maya in Belize goes back thousands of years. Garifuna came to Belize in the early s; Hispanics have trickled in over the past several hundred years; Mennonites came here in the s.

Every group in Belize has a fascinating history to explore. When you tire of intellectual pursuits, you can take trips to the enchanting corners of the country, to the high hills of the Mountain Pine Ridge, to the endless caves of the Chiquibul wilderness, to the lush rainforest of Toledo, to the many islands in the Caribbean Sea and to the mile long Belize Barrier Reef.

Outside the cities and towns, you can often drive for miles without seeing another human being. In that regard, Belize is like a little, subtropical Alaska.

Or like Florida 50 years ago. In Belize, private property is respected and protected. Foreigners can own property virtually anywhere in Belize, with exactly the same rights and protections as exist for Belizeans.

Squatters cannot take your property. As a practical matter, though, the U. Anything of substantial value, such as real estate, is priced in U.

This means that prices in Belize are more stable for American dollar holders than they would be if the Belizean currency floated against the dollar.

It also means that in periods when the value of the U. Of course, during periods of appreciation of the value of the U. Here are their major gripes and complaints.

Keep in mind that some people who are unhappy in Belize would be just as unhappy where they came from.

People have their own ways of doing things and their own time frame for doing them. In remote areas, many Belizeans have never held a regular job.

Belizeans have their own methods of work, sometimes developed over hundreds of years. You have to acclimate yourself to an environment where petty theft is going to happen, and you have to protect your possessions.

Hire a dependable caretaker, put up a fence around your property and get a big black dog. Import duties are high.

All this adds up to an economy where most anything imported is likely to cost more than where it was produced: automobiles, wine, cement, cornflakes, books, shoes.

Belize Telemedia Ltd. Unlike its U. Long-distance and Internet costs in Belize are much higher than in more competitive markets.

Petty bribery is rare. The average Belizean official wants respect, not a few bucks. But corruption certainly exists in Belize, especially at the higher levels of government.

These culminated in demonstrations in Belize City, during which several people were injured, about were arrested and some stores in the city centre were looted.

Since then, further reports of government corruption and waste have come to light. The new United Democratic Party government, which won the national elections, tried without much success to prosecute some members of the former PUP government.

The Old Boy network is alive and well in Belize, too. Not every government official takes advantage of office, but some do.

Many expats in Belize get sick and tired of this aspect of Belize reality especially since as non-voters they benefit not at all from the political corruption.

America is still the land of opportunity for the entrepreneur, with a huge, wealthy market for any product or service you can imagine.

By contrast, the entire country of Belize has the buying power of a small town of 40, people in the U.

As the saying goes, if you want to make a small fortune in Belize, come here with a big fortune. Make your bucks before you come to Belize.

In short, nobody cares what you think about local matters. Here are the basic facts to get you up to speed on Belize: Acclimatization: How long does it take the typical expat to acclimatize to Belize?

The answer varies from immediately to never. Belize is superficially similar to the U. But, below the surface, the differences are more subtle and significant see Getting Along in Belize chapter below.

Bargaining: In general, prices in Belize stores are fixed, and there is no bargaining. At street markets, you may do some light bargaining, but haggling is not a way of life in Belize as it is some other parts of the world.

Of course, when buying real estate, bargaining is the order of the day in Be11 lize as most everywhere. Business Hours: Most businesses open around 8 a.

Some close for lunch, usually from 1 to 2 p. Many stores are open on Saturday, or at least on Saturday mornings. On Sundays, most stores and other businesses are closed, except in tourist areas like San Pedro.

Banks typically are open until 1 p. Monday to Thursday and until 4 or 5 on Friday. The capital was moved from Belize City following the terrific destruction and loss of life caused by Hurricane Hattie in As with cell phone service nearly everywhere, cell plans in Belize are complex and change frequently, but in general Belize cell service, especially texting, is more costly than in the U.

SpeedNet is another digital cell service that began operating in and may offer slightly lower rates than BTL. See also Internet and Telephone entries below.

Belize has one Muslim mosque. There is no temple, but Jews meet in local homes in Belize City. Climate: Most of Belize has a sub-tropical climate similar to that of South Florida.

Frost-free Belize usually enjoys lows in the 60s to 70s, with highs in the 80s to low 90s. More rain falls as you go south, with average annual rainfall in the north being about 50 inches, similar to Atlanta, Georgia, but increasing to inches or more in the far south.

Generally the rainiest months are June through October, with the driest months being February through April. January sees the coolest temperatures of the year, while May has the hottest.

In general, daytime temps are higher inland, due to the influ12 ence of prevailing winds from the sea on the cayes and coast. The humidity is high year round in all parts of the country.

Drugs: Despite its reputation as a source of marijuana and, more recently, as a transshipment point for cocaine and other drugs from South America, Belize has strict laws on the use of illegal drugs, with prison terms and fines for offenders.

Quite a few Belizeans smoke marijuana, some fairly openly, but it is illegal. Unfortunately, crack, heroin and other hard drugs are a fact of life in Belize, as they are in many countries.

Much of the crime in Belize City and in other parts of the country is related to drugs. By comparison, U.

Thus, per-capita income in Belize is less than one-tenth that in the U. Major concerns include a large public debt relative to government income and GDP, and a sizeable trade deficit.

More than one-third of the population is below the poverty line. The entire Belize national economy is about the size of the economy of a small U.

Due to recent growth, tourism is now slightly larger. Ambergris Caye, Cayo and Placencia are the major areas developed for tourism.

These figures do not include almost three quarter of a million annual day visitors on cruise ships, which call on Belize City.

The main agricultural crops are sugar cane, citrus, marine products and bananas. Aquaculture, mainly shrimp farming, has grown in importance in recent years.

Belize has a labor force of around , The official unemployment rate in was about Even so, there is a shortage of skilled workers in some areas.

Inflation in Belize has been low to moderate in recent years; it was 4. The government has been running a large budget deficit in recent years.

That is high given the small size of the Belizean economy. In , the government reached agreement with most international creditors to restructure its external debt, issuing new bonds at lower interest rates.

Students move through forms, from first form in primary school to sixth form a kind of junior college , although some schools, following U.

The Catholic Church, through an agreement with the government, operates many of Belize's public schools. Nearly two-thirds of Belize's population are teenagers or younger, so in every part of Belize you'll see school kids in their khaki or blue school uniforms.

In Belize City and elsewhere, there are both Catholic and government-run high schools. A few private or parochial schools run by Protestant denominations also exist.

The best schools are in Belize City and in larger towns, and many of the worst schools -- with untrained teachers and few books or equipment -- are in the far south.

One study found that lack of supplies was a major problem for schools in Toledo, and that about one-half of the teachers in the district had no educational training beyond high school.

Only one in two Toledo children even finish primary school. In , more than 85, students were enrolled in Belize schools and colleges at all levels, including almost 4, in preschools, 63, in primary schools, and more than 13, in high schools.

Close to 5, students were in post-secondary studies. Primary education is free and compulsory through age However, a sizable minority of Belizean children does not complete primary school.

Secondary education, consisting of a four-year high school, is competitive, requiring passage of a comprehensive exam. The student's percentile ranking on the admissions test in part determines which school the student can attend.

Charges for books and fees at secondary schools are beyond the reach of many Belizean families.

About three-fourths of primary school students do go on to secondary schools, though not all graduate. The Belize government pays this tuition if the student is a child of a citizen or permanent resident.

Some expats choose to do home schooling. Private schools are available in a few areas. This school has an excellent reputation.

Belize Elementary School in Belize City is one of the best private elementary schools on the mainland. Saint Catherine Academy for girls and St.

John's High School for boys, both in Belize City, are recognized as among the best high schools.

Belize also has community colleges and junior colleges. Despite the name, community colleges such as Corozal Community College and Toledo Community College, and also some other schools with college in the name, are usually secondary schools high schools.

Junior colleges may have secondary school programs but also offer tertiary, post-high 14 school programs. Most are patterned after the "sixth form" in Britain.

They usually offer associate or two-year college degrees. John's College in Belize City has educated many of Belize's leaders.

Corozal Junior College and St. John's Junior College also offer evening and extension programs directed primarily to adults.

Until the s, Belize did not have a true four-year university system. The colleges in Belize City and elsewhere were more like American high schools or two-year community colleges.

However, in , provisions were made for the development of the University of Belize, which combines several existing Belize educational facilities.

The University of the West Indies also offers courses in Belize. A sampling of education costs in Belize.

However, electricity is at least twice as expensive in Belize as in the U. Embassies: The U. In , George W.

Dieter was a professor at the University of Colorado law school. He went to law school at the University of Denver and before that roomed for four years with W as an undergraduate at Yale.

The U. However, as in many countries, Belize faces social problems relating to the disintegration of traditional family life.

Especially in Belize City and other urbanized areas, a large percentage of babies are born out of wedlock and the traditional nuclear family is becoming less the norm.

Government: Formerly a British colony, and known as British Honduras from to , Belize became independent from Britain in It is now a democratic member of the British Commonwealth, with a Westminster-style government system with a prime minister, an elected house of representatives and an appointed senate.

The current prime minister is Dean Barrow, a Jamaica- and U. Both parties are generally centrist. Politics in Belize is a freewheeling affair and often intensely personal.

Belize has strong ties with the United States and Britain, but it also has cultivated ties with Taiwan, Cuba, Venezuela, Japan, Mexico and other countries, often out of the need to seek foreign aid or development funding.

History: The human history of Belize can be divided into four broad periods: the ancient Maya period, the Spanish conquest, the British colonial period and modern Belize.

The ancient Maya, whose ancestors likely came originally from Asia, settled in what is now Mexico at least 2, years before the birth of Christ.

The Maya civilization was influenced by and grew out of the Olmec culture farther north. The Maya migrated to what is now Belize about 3, years ago.

During the height of the Maya empire, called the Classic Period, roughly BC to AD, the area that is now Belize had a civilization that included large-scale agriculture, sizeable cities of up to several hundred thousand people, formalized religion and a sophisticated knowledge of architecture, art, science and mathematics.

As many as a million people lived in Belize during the late Classic period, compared to less than one-third that number today.

Caracol likely was the largest city-state in Belize, with a population perhaps several times larger than that of Belize City today.

Then, rather quickly, in a matter of at most a few hundred years, most of the great Maya cities were depopulated and the Maya civilization went into decline.

It could have been a combination of reasons. Whatever the reasons, by around AD most of the major cities in Belize had been at least partially abandoned, though a few settlements, such as Lamanai in northern Belize, lasted for many more centuries.

Spanish troops and missionaries destroyed much of what was left of the Maya civilization, including burning nearly all of the Maya books they found.

Soldiers killed many, and the European diseases they brought such as smallpox killed even more. Belize offered little to the Spanish in the way of gold or other riches, so Spain never paid much attention to it.

By the early 17th Century, Belize drew the attention of a motley group of British loggers and adventurers.

The original Brits in Belize sought logwood, a valuable hardwood used to make dyes. These Brits also did a little buccaneering on the side.

One of the most fearsome was Edward Teach, called Blackbeard for his huge black beard. According to legend, Blackbeard used Ambergris Caye for his hideout, continuing to terrorize ships of all nations, until he was finally killed off the coast of North Carolina.

By around , several hundred British loggers and hangers-on had settled around the mouth of the Belize River, near the bay of what is now Belize City.

The Brits were known as Baymen. British logging settlements grew over the course of the next years or so. The loggers imported slaves from Jamaica to help cut logwood and mahogany.

There was continuing conflict between the British and the Spanish. Finally, in early September , a Spanish fleet of 32 ships with about 2, men came to settle the score and wipe out the British once and for all.

A ragtag band of Baymen assisted by a Royal Navy battleship on September 10, , defeated the larger Spanish force in the Battle of St.

Spain acknowledged British sovereignty in Belize in the Treaty of Amiens in Thus began the British era in Belize, which lasted until the midth Century.

British Honduras, as it was then known, officially became a British colony in , at the time of the U. Civil War. Much of the British period was marked by the traditional colonial approach of exploiting the natural resources of the colony.

Though slavery was abolished in Belize in , two decades before it was abolished in the United States, English and Scottish companies employing hard-working Belizean blacks continued to log the native forests, exporting the timber back to Europe.

During this time, Belize began to become a melting pot of races and ethnic backgrounds. The old Baymen families, with names like Usher and Fairweather, married former slaves, creating a kind of provincial Creole aristocracy in Belize City.

But underneath the sleepiness, things were stirring. Jamaican-born Marcus Garvey helped raised 17 black consciousness in Belize, as he did elsewhere in the Caribbean.

The worldwide Great Depression and a terrible hurricane in , which killed some 2, people in and around Belize City, both had a great impact on Belize.

The end of World War II sparked anti-colonial feelings, and the first major political movements favoring independence from Britain arose.

In , a new constitution for the colony was introduced, for the first time giving all literate adults the right to vote until then only about 3 in Belizeans were allowed to vote.

In , George Price negotiated a new constitution, which granted British Honduras full internal self-government, although it remained a British colony.

On September 21, , Belize became an independent nation, with George Price as prime minister. Small by international standards, unpopulated and undeveloped, modern Belize has struggled to create a viable economy and infrastructure.

The country several times faced off with Guatemala, which had long maintained that Belize was simply a province of Guatemala.

It was not until that Guatemala finally recognized Belize as a sovereign state, although even up until today populist flag-wavers in Guatemala occasionally threaten to invade Belice as it is known in Spanish.

More recently, tourism has supplanted agriculture as the primary industry. Democracy found fertile roots in Belize, and the little country has a dynamic two-party system.

The worst hurricane in modern Belize history struck in September , killing as many as 2, people in and around Belize City.

About two-thirds of all tropical storms that have visited Belize in modern times have struck during those two months.

Since , some 52 tropical storms and hurricanes have made landfall in Belize, an average of about once every 2.

During the last half of the 20th century, only five serious hurricanes struck Belize, with the worst being Hattie in With the new millennium has come an increase in storm activity.

Hurricane Iris in early October devastated the Placen19 cia peninsula and rural Toledo District in southern Belize, killing 21 people, all in a live aboard dive boat.

Hurricane Dean, in August hit Northern Belize, destroying some crops and homes. Hurricanes can have a serious economic impact on Belize. Even without hurricanes and tropical storms, flooding does frequently occur in low-lying areas, especially at the beginning of the rainy season, typically in June or July.

Heavy rains from June through September in southern Belize can also cause flooding at any time during this period. Likewise, there are no active volcanoes in Belize.

Forest fires are a risk at the end of the dry season, typically April and May. Internet: There are about 35, Internet users in Belize.

Internet access in Belize has been greatly improved over the past few years. However, costs are higher than in the U.

These are download rates, and in practice you may not get these speeds. Check www. Note: DSL may not be available in all areas of these cities, towns and villages.

Dial-up accounts are also available from BLT. Connection speed is slow, usually 28 to 52 kbps. Some Internet users in Belize go with a satellite service, mainly HughesNet.

There are issues with getting import permits for satellite service. Most businesses and nearly all hotels in Belize have Internet access.

BTL also has installed Internet kiosks for public Internet access in several locations around the country.

There are a number of wireless hotspots in Belize. Language: The official language of Belize is English, and English speakers have little or no trouble communicating anywhere in the country.

However, Creole, a combination of mostly English vocabulary with West African grammar, syntax and word endings, is used daily by many Belizeans of all backgrounds.

Spanish is widely spoken as well, and tends to be the domi20 nant language in areas bordering Mexico and Guatemala. The Belize government has called on all Belizeans to learn both Spanish and English.

Garifuna and Maya languages also are spoken, and some Mennonites speak a German dialect. As many as two-thirds of Belizeans are bi- or tri-lingual.

Largest Cities and Towns: Populated areas in Belize are officially designated as a city, town or village. Belize City is the largest city, with an official population of 66,, according to the update of the Belize Census.

Including its outskirts, the city is home to about 80, people. Belmopan, the capital, also has been designated a city; it has a population of 20, However, the fast-growing San Pedro area of Ambergris Caye may soon surpass these towns in population.

Belize is divided into six political districts, which function a little like U. To the east is the Caribbean Sea.

In Belize waters are as many as islands, most unpopulated specks of sand or mangrove. Belize is about the size of the U.

From north to south Belize is less than miles in length, and at its widest point it is less than 70 miles across. Mail Service: Mail service to and from Belize is reasonably reliable and not too slow.

Mail between the U. There are post offices in Belize City and in all towns and some villages. Many areas do not have home delivery.

However, never send cash by mail. To mail an airmail letter from Belize to the U. For fast, dependable but expensive international express delivery, DHL Worldwide Express is one choice.

Federal Express is another. Scale , The best general map to Belize, last updated as 6th edition in Available from www.

This mile-by-mile guide to most roads in Belize is really handy if you are traveling around the mainland. It also has maps of Belize City and major towns.

Beautiful map, in two flat sheets, with Belize City and town maps on reverse sides. Also, there are 44 individual topo maps to most of Belize, at , scale.

Most are now out of print. Google Earth has satellite images of Belize. Some areas are in fairly high resolution; others, not.

Media: Belize has six television stations, several radio stations and a number of weekly and monthly newspapers. There is no daily newspaper in the country.

Cable television companies operate in most populated areas. Most of the weekly newspapers in Belize are based in Belize City, but a few other towns have weekly or monthly newspapers.

The two best national newspapers in Belize are Amandala and The Reporter. Both have Web editions: www. The Guardian and the Belize Times are operated by the two leading political parties in Belize.

Ambergris Caye has two weekly newspapers. The San Pedro Sun tel. Ambergris Today tel. None of these newspapers has extensive classified listings for real estate or other items of interest to prospective expats, although the San Pedro Sun usually has a page or so of classified items for sale, and Amandala usually has some Belize City home rental and homes for sale listings.

Two Belize City TV stations, Channel 5 and Channel 7, may also be picked up in a good part of the country, though these stations are not carried on all cable systems.

Channel 5 has an informative text version of its nightly news broadcast on-line at www. Channel 7, which has more of a UDP political slant, also has an on-line news summary at www.

Streaming video versions of the evening newscasts are now also available, though the quality can be spotty. While some of the equipment is primitive, it has some good locally produced programming.

During the day it broadcasts an eclectic mix of local music, rap, soul and other music, along with Belize news.

This station has three full newscasts at a. Both stations offer Internet broadcasts you have to install Real One media player.

Web site for KREM is www. Belize First Magazine, an on-line magazine about Belize founded by Lan Sluder, has hundreds of pages of articles and archives at www.

Among its offerings are eBooks on Belize and a news archive going back more than eight years. Most of these media can be accessed through links from www.

Cable TV, typically with some 50 channels from the U. Some Belize residents have satellite TV. Medical Care: Belize City is the center for medical care in Belize.

A number of dentists and private medical clinics are available there. Altogether, there are about public hospital beds in Belize.

The public hospitals provide the four basic medical specialties: internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics and OB-GYN.

Karl Heusner Memorial also provides neuro, ENT, physiotherapy, orthopedic surgery and several other services. The quality of these hospitals varies considerably.

Karl Heusner Memorial -- named after a prominent Belize City physician -- opened in and has much modern equipment, such as a CAT-scan, though some Belizeans and expats complain that even this hospital is chronically short of supplies, including at times toilet paper.

In , it added new facilities including ones for neurosurgery and trauma care. The Southern Regional Hospital in Dangriga, which opened in , is another modern facility, with much of the same medical technologies and equipment as you'd find in a community hospital in an American town.

However, other hospitals leave a lot to be desired. The Northern Regional Hospital in Orange Walk, for example, though it is being upgraded, still looks more like a refugee camp than a hospital, with low concrete block buildings and limited equipment.

Several small medical clinics, one essentially a small hospital, operate in San Pedro. Besides these hospitals, Belize has a network of around 60 public health clinics and rural health posts in many towns and villages around the country, providing primary medical and dental care.

Most of these suffer from inadequate staffing, too many patients for their available resources and lack of equipment and medicine.

Doctors may diagnose health problems accurately, but they may not be able to provide the proper medications to cure them. Altogether these private hospitals have fewer than 50 hospital beds.

There also are a number of physicians and dentists in private practice, mostly in Belize City. Starting in the late s, health care in Belize got a boost, thanks to the arrival of a group of several dozen medical volunteers from Cuba.

Currently almost Cuban nurses and physicians are in Belize. Most physicians and dentists in Belize are trained in the U.

There are three so-called offshore medical schools in Belize, but their graduates are unlikely to practice in Belize. A nursing school, affiliated with the University of Belize, trains nurses for work in Belize.

Also see the chapter on Health in Belize below. Money: The Belize currency is the Belize dollar, which for many years has been tied to the U.

Moneychangers at the borders often give a slightly higher rate than 2 Belize 24 for 1 U. The Belize dollar is difficult if not impossible to exchange anywhere outside of Belize except at border areas of Guatemala and Mexico.

Paper-money Belize denominations are the , , , , 5- and 2dollar bills. Belize coins come in 1-dollar, 50, 25, 10, 5 and 1 Belizean cent units.

The cent piece is called a shilling. These are persons of mixed European and Maya heritage, typically speaking Spanish as a first language and having social values more closely associated with Latin America than with the Caribbean.

Mestizos are concentrated in northern and western Belize. Mestizos are the fastest growing segment of the population. These are people usually but not always of 25 African heritage, typically speaking Creole and English and often having a set of social values derived from England and the Caribbean.

Creoles are concentrated in Belize City and Belize District, although there are predominantly Creole villages elsewhere, including the village of Placencia.

They are of mixed African and Carib Indian heritage. Most came to then British Honduras from Honduras in s. Divided into conservative and progressive groups, they farm large acreages in Belize.

Conservatives live mostly in Shipyard, Barton Creek and Little Belize, avoid the use of modern farm equipment and speak German among themselves.

Belize predominantly is a country of the young. More than two out of five Belizeans are under 15 years of age, and the median average age is around 19 years.

Pharmacies: There are drug stores in Belize City and in all towns. Many prescription drugs cost less in Belize than in the U.

In general, in Belize prescriptions usually are not needed for antibiotics and some other drugs that require prescriptions in the U.

Satellite Radio: Yes, satellite radio is available in Belize. Although Sirius and XM Radio have merged, and most of their programming is now shared, the two services use different satellites.

Currently, Sirius can be picked up better than XM in most of Belize. A few items are exempt: basic foodstuffs such as rice, flour, tortillas, eggs and beans; some medicines; school textbooks; transportation on buses and airplanes, items being exported and hotel stays taxed under the hotel tax system.

Like a value-added tax, the GST is supposed to be included in the final purchase price, rather than added on like a sales tax, but many businesses quote prices without the GST and just add it on at the cash register.

There are additional taxes on alcohol, cigarettes and a few other items. More than one-half the cost of gasoline is due to government tax.

Personal income tax is only on income derived in Belize; there is no Belize income tax on income generated outside Belize. The rate for what is actually a turnover tax ranges from 0.

For most businesses it is 1. Revenue taxes for several types of businesses were increased in early and again in Property taxes on homes and other developed land are very low.

Since , there has been a move to make property taxes based on the market value of the property, but implementation has been spotty at best.

This GST also applies, in some cases, to the first sale of lots in a subdivision, but not to their resale. Belize has signed double taxation agreements with many countries, including: United Kingdom, Bahamas, Barbados, St.

Vincent and the Grenadines, Dominica, Grenada, St. Note: This very brief overview of Belize taxation should not be relied on for your actual situation, for which professional tax advice is recommended.

Telecommunications: Belize has one of the best telephone systems in the region, with a combination of fiber optic cable and microwave, plus 27 cell service in most of the country.

There are some , cell phone subscribers and 33, landlines. You can dial to or from even remote areas of Belize and usually get a clear, clean line.

That's the good news. The bad news is that telephone service in Belize is expensive, both for users and for Belizean taxpayers who are the footing part of the bill.

Belize Telemedia, Ltd. After several changes, it became Belize Telecommunications, Ltd. BTL retained a legal monopoly on all types of telecommunications services in Belize until the end of , when its license to operate all forms of telecommunications in Belize expired.

It is no longer the monopoly it once was, since BTL now has some limited competition, but it's still the pound gorilla of Belize telcom -- and if you live in Belize, you can't escape its clutches.

Virgin Islands. ICC added 5, new landlines and claims to have brought on thousands of new cell users. The government has taken over the operations of BTL, supposedly pending the sale of company stock to Belizean and other private investors.

The amount the government will have to pay Lord Ashcroft and other owners is in dispute. Stay tuned. In spring , a new Belizean-owned wireless company, Speednet, began offering digital cell service in Belize, with an interconnect to BTL.

Speednet, or Smart as its consumer brand is called, now offers wireless voice and Internet service in most of Belize.

In , it was disclosed that Michael Ashcroft also had an interest in Speednet. Local calls in Belize are charged by the minute each local minute costs US5 cents, after some free units.

Costs for calls to other parts of Belize vary from US 10 to 20 cents a minute during the day, and half that at night.

Costs of directdialed long-distance calls to the U. With Belize and international long-distance and cell phone rates so high, some Belizeans with personal computers are turning to Voice over In28 ternet Protocol VoIP services, such as Skype.

A seven-digit dialing system was introduced in Formerly, telephone numbers in Belize had five digits, plus a two-digit local exchange number in Belize.

Now to reach any number in Belize you must dial all seven digits. The second digit of the phone number is a service provider code: 0 for prepaid services, 1 for mobile services and 2 for regular telephone service.

So a number like 22x-xxxx indicates that it is in Belize District and is a regular telephone, not a cell phone and not a prepaid service.

When dialing from outside Belize, you must also dial the country code and international calling prefix. The country code for Belize is When dialing from the U.

Pay phones in Belize now operate only with a prepaid BTL calling card. BTL provides a single telephone directory for Belize, published annually in the spring.

See also Internet above. Central Standard Time. Belize does not observe daylight savings time. It has several costs of living.

The traditional view is that Belize is the most expensive country in Central America, yet one of the least expensive in the Caribbean.

You can live in a luxury fourbedroom house on Ambergris Caye, with air conditioning, telephones and faxes, a dishwasher, microwave and cable TV, U.

Most expats in Belize choose somewhere in between. After all, per capita income in Belize is a fraction of that in the U.

Tens of thousands of Belizeans live, and in many cases live comfortably, on a few thousand dollars a year. You can, too. Or you can compromise, 30 forsaking those high-cost icons of civilization such as 80, BTU air conditioners, while keeping the family car, boat or other toys that you enjoy.

Live partly on the Belizean style, partly in the U. One American expat, who returned to Colorado after living in Belize for five years, said he was surprised at how the cost of living in the U.

All prices are shown here in U. As in other countries, prices for many items vary depending on where and when you buy them. Here are several different budgets.

Monthly Budget in U. Dollars for Affluent Couple in San Pedro This budget reflects the cost of living for a year-old affluent expat couple that rent a two-bedroom condo on Ambergris Caye.

Assumption: The couple owns a golf cart for transportation, owns a small boat and spends freely for entertainment and personal expenses.

Dollars for Middle-Class Couple This budget reflects the cost of living for a year-old expat couple that owns their own home in Placencia.

Also assumed: their Ford Explorer is paid for and that they choose to pur33 chase health insurance, which includes medevac coverage, from an international insurer.

Assumptions: The individual uses public transportation and takes advantage of local public health care system.

An American who owns a second home on Ambergris Caye posted this plaintive note on one of the message boards on www. I just received a call today saying our house had been broken into again.

This time they broke into a locked closet, then broke into a large metal lock box with heavy duty locks on it.

Took everything of value again. The same thing had happened in July. Sometimes they break in just to put graffiti on the walls.

They also broke into our little guesthouse, with nothing of value in it, just painted and fixed up punctured the waterbed and destroyed the inside.

We pay them good money to live there free, but the only thing they did was steal from us, too. My neighbor was also robbed every time we were.

All of his stuff was also locked up, but they have all the time in the world to go thru your things and break into everything.

These thieves live in the dump, have no job and live to rob people. These are the same ones who have robbed tourists even at gun point on the beach.

There have been three within the last few months. One guy got caught in the house and still got away with it, God knows how.

These accounts are from Ambergris Caye, but the situation is similar in most parts of Belize.

Residents and tourism operators in Placencia village, Caye Caulker and Corozal are reporting increased problems with burglaries and thefts, a trend that mirrors a similar situation taking place in San Pedro.

One tourism operator in Placencia said that of the last five guest parties the operator had booked in Placencia village, all five had been hit with 35 thefts, usually in the daytime.

On Caye Caulker, two hotel owners reported that break-ins at hotels, businesses and homes were occurring almost nightly.

The San Pedro Chamber of Commerce, following a series of highprofile robberies and burglaries that culminated in the murder of a security guard at Fido's, developed a list of 20 steps -- including screening new arrivals to the island coming from the mainland, registering street vendors and strengthening community watch programs -- it recommends to help stop the crime wave.

Burglaries and petty theft in Belize are disturbingly common. There are about 2. So, in the U. But the situation is perhaps more acute in Belize, in part because often the police do little about the problem.

This can be because they are incompetent, or lack the necessary training or, in some cases, they know the culprits and refuse to arrest them.

Most often I think it is due to lack of resources. One American expat in Placencia had to briefly leave the peninsula because drug dealers thought this person had found and kept a shipment of cocaine.

Local constables probably knew who the drug dealers were but were reluctant to take any action. They felt powerless to offer protection, so they recommended this American go away on vacation until things cooled down.

What can you do to avoid being a burglary victim in Belize? Several things can help: Put burglar bars on your windows and doors.

If your house is in a remote area, the bad guys may just attach a chain to the burglar bars and pull them off with a truck, but in most areas they offer a good first line of defense.

Get a dog. A dog is THE most effective deterrent to break-ins in Belize. A big, black dog is considered the best deterrent. Hire a caretaker you can trust.

Though there are irresponsible or crooked caretakers, there also are many who are dependable and will look out for your property when you are away.

Ask around, especially among fellow expats and at local churches, for an honest individual or family.

There can also be issues related to your role as an employer, including the requirement to provide social security payments, severance pay, vacation time and other employment issues.

Install an alarm system with motion detectors. Belize has several security companies that install and monitor residential security systems.

Check the Belize telephone directory for other security companies. Personal Safety The homicide and violent crime rate in Belize is higher than in most large urban areas of the United States.

Typically, there are 90 to murders a year in Belize. However, most of the murders are concentrated in Belize City, and much of the other violent crime involves a farm worker getting drunk on Saturday night and knifing or machete chopping somebody in a cool spot bar.

Also, although there are gangs in Belize City, Belize does not have the severe youth gang problems that plague Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador.

In Central America alone, it is estimated there are , members of maras, Spanish for species of swarming, aggressive ants.

While there are gangs in Belize City, the situation nothing like that in Honduras, where the number of gang members is higher than the total population of Belize City.

A recent report by non-governmental organizations in Central America puts the murder rate for Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador as follows: El Salvador It does have cheap rum, awe-inspiring ruins, beautiful Caribbean seas and much more.

But the rules are different. The people who make and enforce the rules are different. Sometimes there are no rules.

Sometimes there is a set of rules for you, and a different one for everyone else. Just about every expat resident of Belize has some story to tell about problems he or she faced in adjusting to life in Belize -- or, in not adjusting.

Population of a Small City First, Belize is a country with a population hardly bigger than a small city in the U.

Even including recent illegal and uncounted immigrants from El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras, the population of the entire country is only about , Imagine the difficulties your hometown would have if it suddenly became a country.

Belize has to maintain embassies, establish social, educational and medical systems, raise a little army, and conduct affairs of state and international diplomacy, all with the resources of a small city.

It lacks the people resources, not to mention the tax base and financial resources, to get things done in the way North Americans expect. No More Power Most expats seeking retirement or residency in Belize are white middle-class North Americans, from a society still run by white middle-class North Americans.

Belize, on the other hand, is a truly multi-cultural society, with Creoles, Mestizos, Maya, Garifuna, Asians, and what in the rest of Latin America would be called Gringos, living together in complex and changing relationships, living together in probably more harmony than anyone has a right to expect.

In several areas, Creoles dominate; increasingly, in other areas Spanish-speaking Belizeans and immigrants dominate. One thing is for certain, though: In this mix, North Americans, Europeans and Asians have very limited power.

Money talks in Belize, of course, as it does everywhere. Much of its industry and agriculture is controlled by multinational companies or by a few wealthy, well-connected Belizean families.

Politically, however, the typical North American resident of Belize is powerless. He or she has no vote and is truly outside the political process.

The North American or European is not so much at the bottom rung of Belizean society, as off the ladder completely. Culture Shock Culture shock is what happens when everything looks about 20 degrees off kilter, when all the ways you learned were the right ways to deal with people turn out to be wrong.

It is a state, someone said, of temporary madness. Usually it happens after about six months to a year in a new situation. In Belize, culture shock is sometimes masked by the surface familiarity.

Most Belizeans speak English, albeit a different English. They watch -such a shame -- American television.

They drive big, old Buicks and Chevrolets or Japanese cars. They even accept U. But, underneath the surface sameness, Belize is different, a collection of differences.

Cases in point: The ancient Mayan view of time, cyclical and recurring, and even the Mayan view today, are grossly different from the linear way urban North Americans view time.

The emerging Hispanic majority in Belize has social, religious and political views that are quite different from the views of the average North American, or, even of the typical Belizean Creole.

In many cases, family connections and relationships are more important in Belize than they are in the U. Time is less important. Otherwise honest men may take money under the table for getting things moving.

Physical labor, especially agricultural work and service work, because of the heritage of slavery and colonialism, is sometimes viewed as demeaning among some Belize groups.

A Belizean may work long hours for himself - fishing or logging can be backbreaking labor but be reluctant to do so for an employer.

Respect, Not Money Respect is important in Belize. If you diss one of your employees or neighbors, you may find yourself in a bad situation on a dark night.

Just when you least expect it, you may get jumped on a back street and beat nearly to death.

If you say something bad about a politician or a business owner, it may come back and bite you years later. On the other hand, Belizeans can be surprisingly rough and tumble in their personal relationships.

The best advice is to make as many friends in Belize as you can. No K-Marts. No Home Depots.

No Circuit Cities. No McDonalds fast food restaurants. Every CD player, nearly every piece of plumbing and electrical equipment, every car and truck, every pair of scissors, every bottle of aspirin, is imported, and often transshipped thousands of miles from one port to another before it gets to the final destination in Belize.

To get ordinary items such as building nails or a certain kind of auto part, you may have to call several different suppliers.

This is what gives Belize its unique flavor in an age of franchised sameness. But, you better Belize it, it also provides a lot of frustration and higher prices.

Health care in Belize is a mixed picture. On the positive side, health and hygiene standards in Belize are considerably higher than in most other countries in Central America or in Mexico.

The vast majority of Belizeans get medical care through a system of government-run hospitals and clinics. Public Hospitals in Belize There are eight public hospitals in Belize.

Karl Heusner Memorial Hospital in Belize City functions as the main public hospital in the country and as a national referral center.

Rockview Hospital in Belize City is a psychiatric center. The public hospitals provide the basic medical specialties: internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics and OB-GYN.

I never met him, never saw him myself. Take great King Nestor now: Zeus has blessed him, all his livelong days, growing rich and sleek in his old age at home, his sons expert with spears and full of sense.

Come, rinse our hands. Tomorrow, at dawn, will offer me and Telemachus time to talk and trade our thoughts in full. Again they reached for the good things set before them.

Zeus can present us times of joy and times of grief in turn: all lies within his power. I will tell something perfect for the occasion.

The rest of the Trojan women shrilled their grief. I grieved too late for the madness Aphrodite sent me, luring me there, far from my dear land, forsaking my own child, my bridal bed, my husband too, a man who lacked for neither brains nor beauty.

So well told. Now then, I have studied, in my time, the plans and minds of great ones by the score. And Diomedes and I, crouched tight in the midst with great Odysseus, hearing you singing out, were both keen to spring up and sally forth or give you a sudden answer from inside, but Odysseus damped our ardor, reined us back.

Then all the rest of the troops kept stock-still, all but Anticlus. But come, send us off to bed. Torches in hand, they left the hall and made up beds at once.

Menelaus retired to chambers deep in his lofty house with Helen the pearl of women loosely gowned beside him.

A public matter or private? Tell me the truth now. My house is being devoured, my rich farms destroyed, my palace crammed with enemies, slaughtering on and on my droves of sheep and shambling longhorn cattle.

My troubles must have moved her to the heart when she met me trudging by myself without my men. Or do you let things slide because you like your pain?

So I must have angered one of the deathless gods who rule the skies up there. How can I cross the swarming sea and reach home at last?

Who haunts these parts? And he, if only you ambush him somehow and pin him down, will tell you the way to go, the stages of your voyage, how you can cross the swarming sea and reach home at last.

How can you cross the swarming sea and reach home at last? What on earth do you want? Then, only then will the gods grant you the voyage you desire.

But tell me this as well, and leave out nothing: Did all the Achaeans reach home in the ships unharmed, all we left behind, Nestor and I, en route from Troy?

Why do you need to know? Why probe my mind? Your brother? He somehow escaped that fate; Agamemnon got away in his beaked ships.

Queen Hera pulled him through. But even from there a safe return seemed likely, yes, the immortals swung the wind around to fair and the victors sailed home.

Picking the twenty best recruits from town he packed them in ambush at one end of the house, at the other he ordered a banquet dressed and spread and went to welcome the conquering hero, Agamemnon, went with team and chariot, and a mind aswarm with evil.

All, killed in the palace. I knelt down in the sand and wept. How long must you weep? Withering tears, what good can come of tears?

None I know of. Who is still alive, held captive off in the endless seas? I want to know the truth though it grieves me all the more.

All this done, I set sail and the gods sent me a stiff following wind that sped me home, home to the native land I love.

But come, my boy, stay on in my palace now with me, at least till ten or a dozen days have passed.

As for the gift you give me, let it be a keepsake. Those horses I really cannot take to Ithaca; better to leave them here to be your glory.

No running-room for mares in Ithaca though, no meadows. Goat, not stallion, land, yet it means the world to me.

None of the rugged islands slanting down to sea is good for pasture or good for bridle paths, but Ithaca, best of islands, crowns them all!

Hephaestus made it himself. And a royal friend, Phaedimus, king of Sidon, lavished it on me when his palace welcomed me on passage home.

But lord Antinous sat apart, dashing Eurymachus beside him, ringleaders, head and shoulders the strongest of the lot.

He sailed in a ship of mine and now I need her back to cross over to Elis Plain where I keep a dozen horses, brood-mares suckling some heavy-duty mules, unbroken.

And what young crew went with him? Or his own slaves and servants? Surely he has enough to man a ship.

Hard to deny him anything. And the young crew that formed his escort? I saw good Mentor yesterday, just at sunup, here. But clearly he boarded ship for Pylos days ago.

They made the suitors sit down in a group and stop their games at once. And this is just the start of the trouble he can make.

Zeus kill that brazen boy before he hits his prime! But not for long was Penelope unaware of the grim plots her suitors planned in secret.

The herald Medon told her. Not Odysseus. Never an outrage done to any man alive. Look at the thanks he gets for all past acts of kindness!

Now your suitors are plotting something worse, harsher, cruder. God forbid they bring it off! She could bear no longer sitting on a chair though her room had chairs aplenty.

Go, someone, quickly! Call old Dolius now, the servant my father gave me when I came, the man who tends my orchard green with trees, so he can run to Laertes, sit beside him, tell him the whole story, blow-by-blow.

If ever, here in his halls, resourceful King Odysseus burned rich thighs of sheep or oxen in your honor, oh remember it now for my sake, save my darling son, defend him from these outrageous, overbearing suitors!

First they hauled the craft into deeper water, stepped the mast amidships, canvas brailed, made oars fast in the leather oarlock straps while zealous aides-in-arms brought weapons on.

They moored her well out in the channel, disembarked and took their meal on shore, waiting for dusk to fall.

Harried so she was, when a deep kind sleep overcame her, back she sank and slept, her limbs fell limp and still. And again the bright-eyed goddess Pallas thought of one more way to help.

Your visits all too rare in the past, for you make your home so very far away. You tell me to lay to rest the grief and tears that overwhelm me now, torment me, heart and soul?

With my lionhearted husband lost long years ago, who excelled the Argives all in every strength? Just a youngster, still untrained for war or stiff debate.

Hordes of enemies scheme against him now, keen to kill him off before he can reach his native land again.

He travels with such an escort, one that others would pray to stand beside them. She pities you in your tears. She wings me here to tell you all these things.

Is he still alive? Or is he dead already, lost in the House of Death? Here the Achaeans lurked in ambush for the prince.

Think: not one of the people whom he ruled remembers Odysseus now, that godlike man, and kindly as a father to his children.

You conceived it yourself: Odysseus shall return and pay the traitors back. But not in the convoy of the gods or mortal men.

So his destiny ordains. He shall see his loved ones, reach his high-roofed house, his native land at last. Quickly under his feet he fastened the supple sandals, ever-glowing gold, that wing him over the waves and boundless earth with the rush of gusting winds.

He seized the wand that enchants the eyes of men whenever Hermes wants, or wakes us up from sleep. Deep inside she sang, the goddess Calypso, lifting her breathtaking voice as she glided back and forth before her loom, her golden shuttle weaving.

Thick, luxuriant woods grew round the cave, alders and black poplars, pungent cypress too, and there birds roosted, folding their long wings, owls and hawks and the spread-beaked ravens of the sea, black skimmers who make their living off the waves.

And round the mouth of the cavern trailed a vine laden with clusters, bursting with ripe grapes. Four springs in a row, bubbling clear and cold, running side-by-side, took channels left and right.

Soft meadows spreading round were starred with violets, lush with beds of parsley. Why, even a deathless god who came upon that place would gaze in wonder, heart entranced with pleasure.

Calypso, lustrous goddess, knew him at once, as soon as she saw his features face-to-face. Immortals are never strangers to each other, no matter how distant one may make her home.

Off he sat on a headland, weeping there as always, wrenching his heart with sobs and groans and anguish, gazing out over the barren sea through blinding tears.

But Calypso, lustrous goddess, questioned Hermes, seating him on a glistening, polished chair. Hermes the guide and giant-killer ate and drank.

It was Zeus who made me come, no choice of mine. Who would willingly roam across a salty waste so vast, so endless?

But there is no way, you know, for another god to thwart the will of storming Zeus and make it come to nothing. But voyaging back they outraged Queen Athena who loosed the gales and pounding seas against them.

There all the rest of his loyal shipmates died but the wind drove him on, the current bore him here. Now Zeus commands you to send him off with all good speed: it is not his fate to die here, far from his own people.

Destiny still ordains that he shall see his loved ones, reach his high-roofed house, his native land at last.

So now at last, you gods, you train your spite on me for keeping a mortal man beside me. The man I saved, riding astride his keel-board, all alone, when Zeus with one hurl of a white-hot bolt had crushed his racing warship down the wine-dark sea.

Steer clear of the rage of Zeus! Now I am willing, heart and soul, to send you off at last. Come, take bronze tools, cut your lengthy timbers, make them into a broad-beamed raft and top it off with a half-deck high enough to sweep you free and clear on the misty seas.

If only the gods are willing. They rule the vaulting skies. So vast, so full of danger not even deep-sea ships can make it through, swift as they are and buoyed up by the winds of Zeus himself.

What a thing to imagine, what a thing to say! My every impulse bends to what is right. Not iron, trust me, the heart within my breast.

I am all compassion. They reached the arching cavern, man and god as one, and Odysseus took the seat that Hermes just left, while the nymph set out before him every kind of food and drink that mortal men will take.

Calypso sat down face-to-face with the king and the women served her nectar and ambrosia. Good luck to you, even so.

Hardly right, is it, for mortal woman to rival immortal goddess? How, in build? All that you say is true, how well I know.

Look at my wise Penelope. She falls far short of you, your beauty, stature. And if a god will wreck me yet again on the wine-dark sea, I can bear that too, with a spirit tempered to endure.

Much have I suffered, labored long and hard by now in the waves and wars. Twenty in all he felled, he trimmed them clean with his ax and split them deftly, trued them straight to the line.

Working away at speed he put up half-decks pinned to close-set ribs and a sweep of gunwales rounded off the sides.

That was the fourth day and all his work was done. Hers were the stars the lustrous goddess told him to keep hard to port as he cut across the sea.

And now, look, it all comes to pass. Three, four times blessed, my friends-in-arms who died on the plains of Troy those years ago, serving the sons of Atreus to the end.

Strewing your way with such a crop of troubles! Just do as I say. You seem no fool to me. Strip off those clothes and leave your craft for the winds to hurl, and swim for it now, you must, strike out with your arms for landfall there, Phaeacian land where destined safety waits.

Nothing to fear now, neither pain nor death. But once you grasp the mainland with your hands untie it quickly, throw it into the wine-dark sea, far from the shore, but you, you turn your head away!

Not yet. The rest of the winds she stopped right in their tracks, commanding them all to hush now, go to sleep.

Rugged reefs offshore, around them breakers roaring, above them a smooth rock face, rising steeply, look, and the surge too deep inshore, no spot to stand on my own two legs and battle free of death.

Well I know the famous god of earthquakes hates my very name! Pity me, lord, your suppliant cries for help!

His knees buckled, massive arms fell limp, the sea had beaten down his striving heart. Is this the end?

But what if I climb that slope, go for the dark woods and bed down in the thick brush? I fear wild beasts will drag me off as quarry.

He set out for the woods and not far from the water found a grove with a clearing all around and crawled beneath two bushy olives sprung from the same root, one olive wild, the other well-bred stock.

Odysseus crept beneath them, scraping up at once a good wide bed for himself with both hands. Long-enduring great Odysseus, overjoyed at the sight, bedded down in the midst and heaped the leaves around him.

Years ago they lived in a land of spacious dancing-circles, Hyperia, all too close to the overbearing Cyclops, stronger, violent brutes who harried them without end.

But his fate had long since forced him down to Death and now Alcinous ruled, and the gods made him wise. The noblest men in the country court you now, all Phaeacians just like you, Phaeacia-born and raised.

The washing-pools are just too far from town. There Athena went, once the bright-eyed one had urged the princess on.

Still beguiled by her dream, down she went through the house to tell her parents now, her beloved father and mother.

She found them both inside. Her mother sat at the hearth with several waiting-women, spinning yarn on a spindle, lustrous sea-blue wool.

Her father she met as he left to join the lords at a council island nobles asked him to attend. Lovely things, but lying before me all soiled.

And you yourself, sitting among the princes, debating points at your council, you really should be wearing spotless linen.

Then, taking the whip in hand and glistening reins, she touched the mules to a start and out they clattered, trotting on at a clip, bearing the princess and her clothes and not alone: her maids went with her, stepping briskly too.

So Nausicaa shone among her maids, a virgin, still unwed. Or am I really close to people who speak my language?

This was the better way, he thought. True, but he is the one more blest than all other men alive, that man who sways you with gifts and leads you home, his bride!

That vision! Only yesterday, the twentieth day, did I escape the wine-dark sea. Till then the waves and the rushing gales had swept me on from the island of Ogygia.

Now some power has tossed me here, doubtless to suffer still more torments on your shores. Long before that the gods will give me more, still more.

I know no one else, none in your city, no one in your land. Show me the way to town, give me a rag for cover, just some cloth, some wrapper you carried with you here.

And may the good gods give you all your heart desires: husband, and house, and lasting harmony too.

Despair to their enemies, joy to all their friends. Their own best claim to glory. You simply have to bear it.

Phaeacians we are, who hold this city and this land, and I am the daughter of generous King Alcinous.

Why run when you see a man? The immortals love us far too much for that. Great Odysseus bathed in the river, scrubbed his body clean of brine that clung to his back and broad shoulders, scoured away the brackish scurf that caked his head.

Give the stranger food and drink, my girls. The white-armed princess thought of one last thing. Her husband-to-be, just wait!

Since nobody lives nearby. Good riddance! You cannot miss it, even an innocent child could guide you there. Once the mansion and courtyard have enclosed you, go, quickly, across the hall until you reach my mother.

The team trotted on, their hoofs wove in and out. She drove them back with care so all the rest, maids and Odysseus, could keep the pace on foot, and she used the whip discreetly.

Now hear my prayer at last, for you never heard me then, when I was shattered, when the famous god of earthquakes wrecked my craft.

Once, she had nursed the white-armed princess in the palace. At the same time, Odysseus set off toward the city. The king who rules the people of these parts.

I am a stranger, you see, weighed down with troubles, come this way from a distant, far-off shore. So I know no one here, none at all in your city and the farmlands round about.

Come, quietly too, and I will lead the way. Now not a glance at anyone, not a question. The men here never suffer strangers gladly, have no love for hosting a man from foreign lands.

But the famed Phaeacian sailors never saw him, right in their midst, striding down their streets. Athena the one with lovely braids would not permit it, the awesome goddess poured an enchanted mist around him, harboring kindness for Odysseus in her heart.

You go on inside. Be bold, nothing to fear. In every venture the bold man comes off best, even the wanderer, bound from distant shores.

Arete, she is called, and earns the name: she answers all our prayers. She comes, in fact, from the same stock that bred our King Alcinous.

First came Nausithous, son of the earthquake god Poseidon and Periboea, the lovely, matchless beauty, the youngest daughter of iron-willed Eurymedon, king of the overweening Giants years ago.

He led that reckless clan to its own ruin, killed himself in the bargain, but the Sea-lord lay in love with Periboea and she produced a son, Nausithous, that lionheart who ruled Phaeacia well.

Such is her pride of place, and always will be so: dear to her loving children, to Alcinous himself and all our people.

They gaze on her as a god, saluting her warmly on her walks through town. Walls plated in bronze, crowned with a circling frieze glazed as blue as lapis, ran to left and right from outer gates to the deepest court recess.

Solid golden doors enclosed the palace. Up from the bronze threshold silver doorposts rose with silver lintel above, and golden handle hooks.

Just as Phaeacian men excel the world at sailing, driving their swift ships on the open seas, so the women excel at all the arts of weaving.

And here is a teeming vineyard planted for the kings, beyond it an open level bank where the vintage grapes lie baking to raisins in the sun while pickers gather others; some they trample down in vats, and here in the front rows bunches of unripe grapes have hardly shed their blooms while others under the sunlight slowly darken purple.

And there by the last rows are beds of greens, bordered and plotted, greens of every kind, glistening fresh, year in, year out. Odysseus went on striding down the hall, the man of many struggles shrouded still in the mist Athena drifted round him, till he reached Arete and Alcinous the king.

May the gods endow them with fortune all their lives, may each hand down to his sons the riches in his house and the pride of place the realm has granted him.

But as for myself, grant me a rapid convoy home to my own native land. Your people are holding back, waiting for your signal.

And let the housekeeper give our guest his supper, unstinting with her stores. A maid brought water soon in a graceful golden pitcher and over a silver basin tipped it out so the guest might rinse his hands, then pulled a gleaming table to his side.

A staid housekeeper brought on bread to serve him, appetizers aplenty too, lavish with her bounty. And on the way no pain or hardship suffered, not till he sets foot on native ground again.

Even when some lonely traveler meets them on the roads, they never disguise themselves. Whom do you know most saddled down with sorrow?

But King Odysseus still remained at hall, seated beside the royal Alcinous and Arete as servants cleared the cups and plates away.

Where are you from? The gods on high have given me my share. But I, cursed as I am, some power brought me to her hearth, alone, when Zeus with a white-hot bolt had crushed my racing warship down the wine-dark sea.

Seven endless years I remained there, always drenching with my tears the immortal clothes Calypso gave me. She saw me on my way in a solid craft, tight and trim, and gave me full provisions, food and mellow wine, immortal clothes to wear and summoned a wind to bear me onward, fair and warm.

My heart leapt up, unlucky as I am, doomed to be comrade still to many hardships. No, the squalls shattered her stem to stern, but I, I swam hard, I plowed my way through those dark gulfs till at last the wind and current bore me to your shores.

But here, had I tried to land, the breakers would have hurled me, smashed me against the jagged cliffs of that grim coast, so I pulled away, swam back till I reached a river, the perfect spot at last, or so it struck me, free of rocks, with a windbreak from the gales.

Not she. She gave me food aplenty and shining wine, a bath in the river too, and gave me all this clothing. Wrenching to tell, but true.

She urged me herself to follow with her maids. Suspicious we are, we men who walk the earth. Balance is best in all things.

Father Zeus, Athena and lord Apollo! No Phaeacian would hold you back by force. The curse of Father Zeus on such a thing!

And about your convoy home, you rest assured: I have chosen the day and I decree it is tomorrow. Your bed is made. Alcinous slept in chambers deep in his lofty house where the queen his wife arranged and shared their bed.

A new arrival! So now, as in years gone by, let us press on and grant him escort. No one, I tell you, no one who comes to my house will languish long here, heartsick for convoy home.

Come, my people! Let all hands lash their oars to the thwarts then disembark, come to my house and fall in for a banquet, quickly.

So then, these are the orders I issue to our crews. Call in the inspired bard Demodocus. God has given the man the gift of song, to him beyond all others, the power to please, however the spirit stirs him on to sing.

The king slaughtered a dozen sheep to feed his guests, eight boars with shining tusks and a pair of shambling oxen.

In came the herald now, leading along the faithful bard the Muse adored above all others, true, but her gifts were mixed with good and evil both: she stripped him of sight but gave the man the power of stirring, rapturous song.

And the herald placed a table by his side with a basket full of bread and cup of wine for him to sip when his spirit craved refreshment.

The herald hung the ringing lyre back on its peg and taking Demodocus by the hand, led him from the palace, guiding him down the same path the island lords had just pursued, keen to watch the contests.

They reached the meeting grounds with throngs of people streaming in their trail as a press of young champions rose for competition. Laodamas rose with two more sons of great Alcinous, Halius bred to the sea and Clytoneus famed for ships.

Next the wrestling, grueling sport. They grappled, locked, and Broadsea, pinning the strongest champions, won the bouts.

In the discus Rowhard up and outhurled them all by far. Nor is he past his prime, just beaten down by one too many blows.

Nothing worse than the sea, I always say, to crush a man, the strongest man alive. Go up to the fellow, challenge him yourself. If you have skill in any.

Come and compete then, throw your cares to the wind! But here I sit amid your assembly still, starved for passage home, begging your king, begging all your people.

Not a chance. I see that. One man may fail to impress us with his looks but a god can crown his words with beauty, charm, and men look on with delight when he speaks out.

Not even a god could improve those lovely looks of yours but the mind inside is worthless. Your slander fans the anger in my heart!

Any Phaeacian here except Laodamas himself. Philoctetes alone outshot me there at Troy when ranks of Achaean archers bent their bows.

My legs have lost their spring. All stood silent, hushed. Only Alcinous found a way to answer. So our guest can tell his friends, when he reaches home, how far we excel the world in sailing, nimble footwork, dance and song.

Go, someone, quickly, fetch Demodocus now his ringing lyre. It must be hanging somewhere in the palace. Poseidon god of the earthquake came, and Hermes came, the running god of luck, and the Archer, lord Apollo, while modesty kept each goddess to her mansion.

Slow outstrips the Swift. A pledge for a worthless man is a worthless pledge indeed. How could I shackle you while all the gods look on?

That was the song the famous harper sang and Odysseus retished every note as the islanders, the lords of the long oars and master mariners rejoiced.

Next the king asked Halius and Laodamas to dance, the two alone, since none could match that pair.

There are twelve peers of the realm who rule our land, thirteen, counting myself. Let each of us contribute a fresh cloak and shirt and a bar of precious gold.

As for Broadsea, let him make amends, man-to-man, with his words as well as gifts. And there stood Nausicaa as he passed. Beside a column that propped the sturdy roof she paused, endowed by the gods with all her beauty, gazing at Odysseus right before her eyes.

And when you are at home, home in your own land, remember me at times. Mainly to me you owe the gift of life. You saved my life, dear girl.

She loves the breed of harpers. But come now, shift your ground. For Troy was fated to perish once the city lodged inside her walls the monstrous wooden horse where the prime of Argive power lay in wait with death and slaughter bearing down on Troy.

Ever since our meal began and the stirring bard launched his song, our guest has never paused in his tears and throbbing sorrow.

Clearly grief has overpowered his heart. Break off this song! Let us all enjoy ourselves, the hosts and guest together. Much the warmer way.

All these things are performed for him, our honored guest, the royal send-off here and gifts we give in love. Treat your guest and suppliant like a brother: anyone with a touch of sense knows that.

Fair is fair, speak out! Surely no man in the world is nameless, all told. Nausithous used to say that lord Poseidon was vexed with us because we escorted all mankind and never came to grief.

He said that one day, as a well-built ship of ours sailed home on the misty sea from such a convoy, the god would crush it, yes, and pile a huge mountain round about our port.

But come, my friend, tell us your own story now, and tell it truly. Where have your rovings forced you? What lands of men have you seen, what sturdy towns, what men themselves?

Who were wild, savage, lawless? Who were friendly to strangers, god-fearing men? Tell me, why do you weep and grieve so sorely when you hear the fate of the Argives, hear the fall of Troy?

Next to our own blood kin, our nearest, dearest ties. Or a friend perhaps, someone close to your heart, staunch and loyal?

No less dear than a brother, the brother-in-arms who shares our inmost thoughts. This, to my mind, is the best that life can offer. Sunny Ithaca is my home.

Around her a ring of islands circle side-by-side, Dulichion, Same, wooded Zacynthus too, but mine lies low and away, the farthest out to sea, rearing into the western dusk while the others face the east and breaking day.

True enough, Calypso the lustrous goddess tried to hold me back, deep in her arching caverns, craving me for a husband. So did Circe, holding me just as warmly in her halls, the bewitching queen of Aeaea keen to have me too.

But they never won the heart inside me, never. Then I urged them to cut and run, set sail, but would they listen?

Not those mutinous fools; there was too much wine to swill, too many sheep to slaughter down along the beach, and shambling longhorn cattle.

Lining up, both armies battled it out against our swift ships, both raked each other with hurtling bronze lances.

Long as morning rose and the blessed day grew stronger we stood and fought them off, massed as they were, but then, when the sun wheeled past the hour for unyoking oxen, the Cicones broke our lines and beat us down at last.

Out of each ship, six men-at-arms were killed; the rest of us rowed away from certain doom. From there we sailed on, glad to escape our death yet sick at heart for the dear companions we had lost.

There, for two nights, two days, we lay by, no letup, eating our hearts out, bent with pain and bone-tired. We disembarked on the coast, drew water there and crewmen snatched a meal by the swift ships.

They swung aboard at once, they sat to the oars in ranks and in rhythm churned the water white with stroke on stroke. From there we sailed on, our spirits now at a low ebb, and reached the land of the high and mighty Cyclops, lawless brutes, who trust so to the everlasting gods they never plant with their own hands or plow the soil.

Unsown, unplowed, the earth teems with all they need, wheat, barley and vines, swelled by the rains of Zeus to yield a big full-bodied wine from clustered grapes.

No trampling of men to start them from their lairs, no hunters roughing it out on the woody ridges, stalking quarry, ever raid their haven.

For the Cyclops have no ships with crimson prows, no shipwrights there to build them good trim craft that could sail them out to foreign ports of call as most men risk the seas to trade with other men.

Well, here we landed, and surely a god steered us in through the pitch-black night. Not that he ever showed himself, with thick fog swirling around the ships, the moon wrapped in clouds and not a glimmer stealing through that gloom.

Quickly we fetched our curved bows and hunting spears from the ships and, splitting up into three bands, we started shooting, and soon enough some god had sent us bags of game to warm our hearts.

A dozen vessels sailed in my command and to each crew nine goats were shared out and mine alone took ten. Then all day long till the sun went down we sat and feasted well on sides of meat and rounds of heady wine.

They swung aboard, they sat to the oars in ranks and in rhythm churned the water white with stroke on stroke.

A grim loner, dead set in his own lawless ways. No maid or man of his household knew that secret store, only himself, his loving wife and a single servant.

Filling a great goatskin now, I took this wine, provisions too in a leather sack. And all his vessels, pails and hammered buckets he used for milking, were brimming full with whey.

But he proved no lovely sight to my companions. Then down he squatted to milk his sheep and bleating goats, each in order, and put a suckling underneath each dam.

And half of the fresh white milk he curdled quickly, set it aside in wicker racks to press for cheese, the other half let stand in pails and buckets, ready at hand to wash his supper down.

Respect the gods, my friend. But tell me, where did you moor your sturdy ship when you arrived? Up the coast or close in? I and the men you see escaped a sudden death.

Judge for yourself what stock our ship had stored. And tell me your name now, quickly, so I can hand my guest a gift to warm his heart.

Our soil yields the Cyclops powerful, full-bodied wine and the rains from Zeus build its strength. I will tell you.

He loosed a hideous roar, the rock walls echoed round and we scuttled back in terror. Roaring out in the godsent night to rob us of our sleep.

So three beasts to bear each man, but as for myself? And last of them all came my great ram now, striding out, weighed down with his dense wool and my deep plots.

And why? Oh if only you thought like me, had words like me to tell me where that scoundrel is cringing from my rage!

They swung aboard, they sat to the oars in rank; and in rhythm churned the water white with stroke on stroke. The sudden backwash drove us landward again, forcing us close inshore but grabbing a long pole, I thrust us off and away, tossing my head for dear life, signaling crews to put their backs in the oars, escape grim death.

Why rile the beast again? Come here, Odysseus, let me give you a guest-gift and urge Poseidon the earthquake god to speed you home.

Now all day long till the sun went down we sat and feasted on sides of meat and heady wine.

And from there we sailed on, glad to escape our death yet sick at heart for the comrades we had lost.

The king had sired twelve children within his halls, six daughters and six sons in the lusty prime of youth, so he gave his daughters as wives to his six sons.

And then, when I begged him to send me on my way, he denied me nothing, he went about my passage.

He gave me a sack, the skin of a full-grown ox, binding inside the winds that howl from every quarter, for Zeus had made that king the master of all the winds, with power to calm them down or rouse them as he pleased.

Aeolus stowed the sack inside my holds, lashed so fast with a burnished silver cord not even a slight puff could slip past that knot.

Yet he set the West Wind free to blow us on our way and waft our squadron home. Favoritism, friend to friend!

They loosed the sack and all the winds burst out and a sudden squall struck and swept us back to sea, wailing, in tears, far from our own native land.

Some blustering god attacked you? Surely we launched you well, we sped you on your way to your own land and house, or any place you pleased.

Set it to rights, my friends. You have the power! Six whole days we rowed, six nights, nonstop. On the seventh day we raised the Laestrygonian land, Telepylus heights where the craggy fort of Lamus rises.

Here the rest of my rolling squadron steered, right into the gaping cove and moored tightly, prow by prow.

Never a swell there, big or small; a milk-white calm spreads all around the place. I scaled its rock face to a lookout on its crest but glimpsed no trace of the work of man or beast from there; all I spied was a plume of smoke, drifting off the land.

Two good mates I chose and a third to run the news. My shipmates clustered round her, asking questions: who was king of the realm?

Straightaway she summoned royal Antiphates from assembly, her husband, who prepared my crew a barbarous welcome.

But the rest went down en masse. Our squadron sank. We reached the Aeaean island next, the home of Circe the nymph with lovely braids, an awesome power too who can speak with human voice, the true sister of murderous-minded Aeetes.

Both were bred by the Sun who lights our lives; their mother was Perse, a child the Ocean bore. We brought our ship to port without a sound as a god eased her into a harbor safe and snug, and for two days and two nights we lay by there, eating our hearts out, bent with pain and bone-tired.

Now all day long till the sun went down we sat and feasted on sides of meat and seasoned wine.

We must think of a plan at once, some cunning stroke. I scaled a commanding crag and from that height surveyed an entire island ringed like a crown by endless wastes of sea.

But the land itself lies low, and I did see smoke drifting up from its heart through thick brush and woods. And so, numbering off my band of men-at-arms into two platoons, I assigned them each a leader: I took one and lord Eurylochus the other.

The whole house is echoing to her song. She opened her gleaming doors at once and stepped forth, inviting them all in, and in they went, all innocence.

Back Eurylochus ran to our swift black ship to tell the disaster our poor friends had faced. I must be off.

Necessity drives me on. Have you come to set them free? But wait, I can save you, free you from that great danger. Look, here is a potent drug.

The moment Circe strikes with her long thin wand, you draw your sharp sword sheathed at your hip and rush her fast as if to run her through!

Dangerous for a mortal man to pluck from the soil but not for deathless gods. All lies within their power.

In a golden bowl she mixed a potion for me to drink, stirring her poison in, her heart aswirl with evil.

You have a mind in you no magic can enchant! Mount your bed? Not for all the world. A second drew up silver tables before the chairs and laid out golden trays to hold the bread.

A third mulled heady, heart-warming wine in a silver bowl and set out golden cups. A maid brought water soon in a graceful golden pitcher and over a silver basin tipped it out so I might rinse my hands, then pulled a gleaming table to my side.

A staid housekeeper brought on bread to serve me, appetizers aplenty too, lavish with her bounty. She pressed me to eat.

I had no taste for food. Suspect me of still more treachery? Nothing to fear. But come, tell us about the fate our comrades met.

Why are we tempting fate? Lead us on to the magic halls of Circe. Nor did Eurylochus malinger by the hull; he straggled behind the rest, dreading the sharp blast of my rebuke.

We found them all together, feasting in her halls. Well I know what pains you bore on the swarming sea, what punishment you endured from hostile men on land.

High time you thought of your own home at last, if it really is your fate to make it back alive and reach your well-built house and native land.

So all that day till the sun went down we sat and feasted on sides of meat and heady wine. You must travel down to the House of Death and the awesome one, Persephone, there to consult the ghost of Tiresias, seer of Thebes, the great blind prophet whose mind remains unshaken.

I knelt in her bed and wept. Who has ever reached the House of Death in a black ship? Once there, go forward, hero.

Do as I say now. And once your prayers have invoked the nations of the dead in their dim glory, slaughter a ram and black ewe, turning both their heads toward Erebus, but turn your head away, looking toward the Ocean River.

Suddenly then the countless shades of the dead and gone will surge around you there. Soon, soon the great seer will appear before you, captain of armies: he will tell you the way to go, the stages of your voyage, how you can cross the swarming sea and reach home at last.

They sank down on the ground, moaning, tore their hair. Who can glimpse a god who wants to be invisible gliding here and there?

The sail stretched taut as she cut the sea all day and the sun sank and the roads of the world grew dark. But I, the sharp sword drawn from beside my hip, sat down on alert there and never let the ghosts of the shambling, shiftless dead come near that blood till I had questioned Tiresias myself.

Faster on foot, I see, than I in my black ship. Now, I beg you by those you left behind, so far from here, your wife, your father who bred and reared you as a boy, and Telemachus, left at home in your halls, your only son.

Perform my rites, and plant on my tomb that oar I swung with mates when I rowed among the living. At last he came.

No doubt you will pay them back in blood when you come home! All that I have told you will come true. But tell me one thing more, and tell me clearly.

I see the ghost of my long-lost mother here before me. How, lord, can I make her know me for the man I am? Any one of the ghosts you let approach the blood will speak the truth to you.

Anyone you refuse will turn and fade away. But I kept watch there, steadfast till my mother approached and drank the dark, clouding blood.

You are still alive! Have you just come from Troy, wandering long years with your men and ship? Not yet returned to Ithaca?

But tell me about yourself and spare me nothing. What form of death overcame you, what laid you low, some long slow illness?

Or did Artemis showering arrows come with her painless shafts and bring you down? Tell me of father, tell of the son I left behind: do my royal rights still lie in their safekeeping?

No one has taken over your royal rights, not yet. Telemachus still holds your great estates in peace, he attends the public banquets shared with all, the feasts a man of justice should enjoy, for every lord invites him.

And I with the same grief, I died and met my fate. No sharp-eyed Huntress showering arrows through the halls approached and brought me down with painless shafts, nor did some hateful illness strike me, that so often devastates the body, drains our limbs of power.

How I long to hold you! Or is this just some wraith that great Persephone sends my way to make me ache with sorrow all the more? This is no deception sent by Queen Persephone, this is just the way of mortals when we die.

But you must long for the daylight. Go, quickly. Remember all these things so one day you can tell them to your wife.

Each declared her lineage, and I explored them all. And the noble queen bore sons to Cretheus too: Aeson, Pheres and Amythaon, exultant charioteer.

And I saw the mother of Oedipus, beautiful Epicaste. But the gods soon made it known to all mankind. She was his queen in Pylos, she bore him shining sons, Nestor and Chromius, Periclymenus too, good prince.

And after her sons she bore a daughter, majestic Pero, the marvel of her time, courted by all the young lords round about.

But Neleus would not give her to any suitor, none but the man who might drive home the herds that powerful Iphiclus had stolen.

Lurching, broad in the brow, those longhorned beasts, and no small task to round them up from Phylace. And so the will of Zeus was done at last.

They were the tallest men the fertile earth has borne, the handsomest too, by far, aside from renowned Orion.

Nine yards across they measured, even at nine years old, nine fathoms tall they towered. Phaedra and Procris too I saw, and lovely Ariadne, daughter of Minos, that harsh king.

Long before that, the godsent night would ebb away. But the time has come for sleep, either with friends aboard your swift ship or here in your own house.

My passage home will rest with the gods and you. How does this man impress you now, his looks, his build, the balanced mind inside him?

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Arvigo today operates a herbal healing facility near San Ignacio. Many other herbal or snake doctors operate in Belize.

Each has advantages and disadvantages. The procedure is simple: You get a 30day entry free via a passport stamp when you arrive in the country by air, land or sea.

After six months, you also must register as an alien. Citizens of the U. Nationals of more than 75 other 53 countries must apply in advance for a tourist visa, and there is a fee.

See the Belize Tourism Board web site, www. As a tourist cardholder, you can enjoy Belize without a long-term commitment.

You can buy or rent property, but you cannot work for pay. Of course, there is no guarantee that you will be able to renew your card indefinitely, as rules and conditions can change, as you have no official residency status.

If you fail to renew your permit in a timely way, or if you overstay your allotted time, technically you are in violation of Belize law and can be deported.

However, some people who overstay their tourist cards are sent packing. The program is designed to attract more retirees to Belize.

In the first years of operation, the program attracted considerable interest and a number of applications. But the Belize Tourism Board now declines to disclose publicly how many applications it has received and how many have been approved.

However, we understand that there are only a few hundred participants in the program. Interest in the program appears to be fairly high, but because of the income requirement, inability to work for pay in Belize, lack of official residency status and other factors, the actual number of retirees under the program in Belize is as yet relatively small and far fewer than are in programs in Costa Rica, Panama, Mexico and elsewhere.

In , the BTB was said to be reviewing the program to see how it can be improved. This program also eliminates some of the bureaucratic delays built into other programs.

The BTB guarantees action on an application in no more than three months, but we have heard of qualified retirees getting approval for this program in only a few weeks.

Who qualifies? Anyone at least 45 years old from anywhere in the world can qualify for the program. A person who qualifies can also include his or her dependents in the program.

Dependents include spouses and children under the age of However, it can include children under the age of 23 if enrolled in a university.

Main benefits: Besides prompt approval of residency for qualifying applicants, import duties and fees for household goods and a vehicle, airplane and boat are waived.

Duty-free import of personal household effects: Qualified Retired Persons under the program can qualify for duty and tax exemptions on new 54 and used personal and household effects admitted as such by the Belize Tourism Board.

A list of all items with corresponding values that will be imported must be submitted with the application. A one-year period is granted for the importation of personal and household effects.

Duty-free import of a vehicle, aircraft and boat: a. Motor Vehicle: Applicants are encouraged to import new motor vehicles under the program, but the vehicle must be no more than three years old.

An exception may be made in the case of an older vehicle with low mileage, but this would be decided on a case-by-case basis.

A Qualified Retired Person may also buy a vehicle duty-free in country. Light Aircraft: A Qualified Retired Person is entitled to import a light aircraft less than 17, kg.

This license can be obtained by passing the requirements set by the Civil Aviation. Boat: Any vessel that is used for personal purposes and for pleasure will be accepted under this program.

If for whatever reason a Qualified Retired Person decides to sell, give away, lease, or otherwise dispose of the approved means of transportation or personal effects to any person or entity within Belize, all duties and taxes must be paid to the proper authorities.

The income rules for Qualified Retired Persons are, like many things in Belize, a little confusing. On first reading, it looks like the income must derive from a pension or annuity that has been generated outside of Belize.

The rules do not specifically say so, but according to Belize Tourism Board officials U. Social Security income can be included as part of this pension requirement.

This pension and annuity information then has to be substantiated by a Certified Public Accountant, along with two bank references from the company providing the pension or annuity.

Background check: All applications are subject to a background check 55 by the Ministry of National Security.

The copies must have the passport number, name of principal, number of pages and the seal or stamp of the Notary Public. A copy of the medical certificate must be attached to the application.

For information on the program, contact: Belize Tourism Board, P. Box , Belize City, Belize, Central America; tel: or ; fax: If you have questions or problems, try contacting the Program Officer.

The current Program Officer is Romy Haylock email romy travelbelize. She is said to be very helpful. The application process itself and the supporting documents needed are similar to those for the QRP, although the applications are processed by different organizations.

Here are the main differences: As a regular permanent resident, you have two major advantages over a participant in the QRP program.

First, you do not have to deposit any particular sum in a bank in Belize. However, you do have to show financial resources sufficient to obtain residency status.

Second, as a permanent resident, you can work for pay in Belize. As a permanent resident, you can vote in local not national Belize elections.

You must live in Belize for one full year before you can apply for 56 regular permanent residency. During this period, you cannot leave the country for more than 14 days.

After approval, you have up to one year to bring in household effects duty-free, on a one-time basis.

However, the duty-free exemption does not apply to a vehicle, boat and airplane, as it does for the Qualified Retired Persons program.

It is somewhat expensive to apply for regular permanent residency. Note that these fees are per-person, not per-application, as is the case for the Qualified Retired Persons program.

Some applicants also have been required to post a bond, supposedly to guarantee the cost of repatriation to their home country, should that ever be required.

Other applicants say they have not been required to post the bond. Residency cards are no longer provided -- instead, your passport is stamped.

Time for approval of a permanent residency application varies. Some find that the process goes fairly quickly, taking only a few months.

Others say it took up to a year, or longer, for approval. Pros and Cons Each option has pluses and minuses. The main advantages and disadvantages are as follows: Tourist Card Pros: No commitment, no financial requirement, flexibility, little red tape.

Qualified Retired Persons Incentive Program Pros: Quick approval, application through Belize Tourism Board rather than Immigration Department, some residency rights except voting , tax-free entry of household effects, car, boat and airplane, only have to live in country for one month a year.

Official Permanent Residency Pros: Full residency rights except voting in national elections -- you can vote in local elections , can work, open to anyone regardless of age, taxfree entry of household effects.

Cons: Year-long residency before applying, more red tape, costly application process, and some people are turned down for minor details; you can bring in household goods but NOT a car, boat or airplane free of duty.

In addition to these programs, regular citizenship in Belize is a possibility for those living in Belize over a long period. To acquire citizenship, applicants must have been a resident or have permanent residency status for a minimum of five years.

Applicants for citizenship need to provide essentially the same supporting documentation as those applying for permanent residency.

Applicants also must demonstrate a knowledge of Belizean history. To become a citizen, 58 you would have to give up QRP status perhaps having to pay back the duties you escaped under QRP , apply for permanent residency, and begin the fiveyear residency from scratch.

Caution: Rules and regulations and the interpretation of them change frequently in Belize. Do NOT assume that this information is the last word on any matter pertaining to entering or staying in Belize.

To be sure, in a few prime areas you can spend hundreds of thousands of dollars on North American-style luxury home, but you can also buy raw land at prices not seen in the U.

More good news: There are few restrictions on the purchase or use of real estate by foreigners, legal documents are in English and follow English common law traditions.

Shopping for Housing Except for occasional ads in the San Pedro Sun on Ambergris Caye and in Belize City newspapers, and listings on the Internet, few properties are advertised for sale.

Real estate agencies do maintain listing brochures, and you can contact them to request a copy. Most real estate brokers use the Internet as the primary way of presenting listings and of getting prospective buyers.

See the real estate agent listings below for addresses of real estate Web sites in Belize. Many properties are for sale by owner, rather 60 than being listed with a broker.

In many cases, you will see no sign or other indication that a property is for sale. This goes double for rentals. It is rare to see a house advertised for rent in a newspaper, except in San Pedro or Belize City, and brokers handle only the most expensive rentals.

About the only way to find a house or apartment to rent is to spend some time in the area where you wish to rent. Note: Several web sites not affiliated with a real estate company have Belize real estate listings.

Belize First maintains a section of free listings of Belize real estate for sale, wanted and trades. Visit www. Also on the site are some rental listings.

Another interesting site for free listings of Belize real estate is www. Real Estate Brokers In Belize, anyone can be a real estate broker.

No license needed. No schooling, no bonding, no continuing education. Selling real estate is a popular first job for expats in Belize, and some do it on the side without a work permit.

Quite a few hoteliers, dive shop operators and taxi drivers peddle real estate to tourists on the side. One of the best-known real estate guys in Placencia, until he left to sail his boat around the Caribbean, was also the proprietor and barkeep of one of the most popular bars on the peninsula.

Efforts have been made to require some basic licensing of real estate brokers, but as of this writing this is still a work in progress.

Agent members, of which there are more than in Belize, subscribe to a code of ethics and are supposed to follow other professional guidelines.

Not surprisingly, the quality of agents varies. Some are professional and honest. A few are out for a fast buck.

Some are just not very knowledgeable. Real estate commissions in Belize are similar to those in the U. Of course, rates are negotiable.

Because many properties are in remote areas, brokers often charge prospective buyers expenses for travel and transportation incurred in connection with showing properties.

Jenny Wildman and her agents specialize in property on the Placencia peninsula. Belize Land Consultants, P. Box 35, Corozal, tel.

Bill Wildman, a land surveyor, developed Consejo Shores near Corozal Town and also has more than 30 years of real estate experience in Belize.

Diane is a former Californian who with her husband has built a number of homes on Ambergris Caye, including the Los Encantos development.

She is very well informed about real estate on Ambergris Caye. Charlotte's Casa Belize, 78 5th Ave.

Charlotte Zahniser has been in Belize since around She can probably help with rentals in the Corozal area, too.

Emerald Futures has properties in most areas of the mainland. Owners Madeleine and John Estephan were born and raised in Belize.

Rainforest Realty, P. Box , San Ignacio, Cayo; tel. Macarena Rose at , USA direct: ; www. Regent Realty, Ltd. Regent Realty was formerly associated with Regent Insurance Co.

Southwind Properties, P. Box 1, San Pedro, tel. Specializes in property on Ambergris Caye. Sunrise Realty, 1 Barrier Reef Dr.

Box , San Pedro; tel. They focus on properties on Ambergris Caye. Box , Belmopan, Cayo, tel. This is one of the oldest real estate agencies in Cayo.

The owner is originally from Texas. Katie Valk, P. Katie Valk has a home in the Cocoplum development a first-rate place in Placencia and offers lots and homes for sale there.

In many cases, we have no personal knowledge of these agents. They are listed for your convenience. Ambergris Seaside Real Estate, P.

Box , San Pedro, Ambergris Caye, tel. Belize Land Properties Ltd. Belize North Real Estate, P. Box , Corozal Town, tel.

Belize Property Agents Ltd. Box , Belize City, www. Caribbean Properties Consultants, P. Box Dangriga, Stann Creek District, tel.

Caye Caulker for Sale, Caye Caulker, , www. Realty Management of Belize Ltd. Sirena del Mar Ltd. South Belize Realty, www. Ron Forrester at rrf yahoo.

Southern Belize Real Estate, www. Triton Properties, Barrier Reef Dr. Vista Real Estate, Eve St. Box , Belize City, tel. Yearwood Properties, General Delivery, Placencia, tel.

Few Restrictions on Ownership Belize imposes few restrictions on ownership of land by nonnationals. Unlike Mexico, which prohibits the direct ownership of land by foreigners on or near the coast, in Belize foreigners can buy and hold beachfront real estate in exactly the same way as Belizeans.

However, such a license is no longer needed. The only limitations on ownership by foreign nationals are these: Government approval is required from the Ministry of Natural Resources before the purchase of any island, regardless of size.

In a few coastal and caye areas such as Caye Caulker there are rules limiting purchases by non-locals, and approval by the local village council or board must be obtained in advance.

Real Estate Prices Property prices vary greatly in Belize from one area to another. They generally are highest in Belize City, on Ambergris Caye and in Placencia, and lowest in remote rural areas.

The condominium type of ownership is new to Belize, and most condos are on Ambergris Caye. These are generally not a good investment, in our opinion.

Property in Belize has appreciated over the past two decades, but by exactly how much is more difficult to say. Real estate agents naturally talk up the appreciation potential, but keep in mind that the Belize economy is closely tied to the economy in the U.

Since the U. Condo sales in particular have stalled. A few condo developments in Placencia and on Ambergris have shut down, at least temporarily.

Other have stopped or postponed construction. Lot sales also have slowed significantly. However, there still seems to be interest in small tracts of land in inland areas such as Cayo.

Despite the slowdown, price levels seem to have held up in most areas. The only big cuts in asking prices are on properties that were overpriced 65 to begin with, real estate agents say.

Even with appreciation, real estate prices in Belize are still inexpensive by the standards of the U. Waterfront lot prices on the Eastern seaboard of the U.

Lauderdale, Fla. Precautions and Pitfalls Most of the same rules of thumb that apply when looking for a home, land or apartment in the United States or Canada also apply in Belize.

But Belize also has its own special situations: Be prepared to get out and hunt. Understand that the Belize real estate market is small and inefficient.

Someone asked me why a piece of property near Placencia was still on the market three years after he had first seen it advertised. No, I told him, nothing wrong with the property.

The real estate marketplace in Belize is even more inefficient than it is elsewhere. The pool of financially capable real estate buyers in Belize is small, leaving many sellers dependent on foreign buyers.

There is little real estate classified advertising, and most properties are sold or rented by word of mouth. Multiple listing services are just in their infancy in Belize.

There is no computerized database of real estate sales with prices. There are relatively few well-trained real estate agents, appraisers and surveyors.

Mortgage financing is not easily available for foreign buyers, further reducing the size of the buying pool and requiring cash sales or owner financing.

All this means that prices for similar properties can be all over the board. Also, the time to sell a property may be measured in years rather months.

Which is something to think about as you buy real estate, which you may someday want to sell. Remember, too, that in real estate you almost always make your money when you buy, not when you sell.

A common saying among expats in Belize is that the second house you buy or rent is twice as large as the first and costs one-half as much.

The real estate market in Belize is so thin that many sellers just pull an asking price out of the air -- similar properties can vary widely in asking price.

Unscrupulous real estate agents also sometimes change the asking price in mid-negotiation, in many cases without telling the owner.

Spend as much time in Belize as you can before you put any money in real estate. Caveat emptor.

Buyer beware applies as much in Belize as anywhere else. It may be a great deal, but look before you leap.

In Belize, especially outside resort areas, there are sometimes two prices: one price for locals and another price for foreigners.

From the Belizean point of view, this is perfectly kosher and reflects the reality that Americans or Canadians or Europeans make far more money for the same work as Belizeans and can well afford to pay more.

Another is spend enough time in the country to get a feel for the difference between the Belizean price and the non-Belizean price, so that at least you can bargain with your eyes open.

This tax is due at closing and is calculated on the gross sales price of the property, or, in the case of property being transferred at less than market value, of the actual value of the property.

This applies, for example, to newly constructed condos and houses. It also applies in some cases to residential lots selling for the first time in a subdivision.

It does NOT apply to the sale of other land or previously occupied homes. In some cases, the GST is rolled into the sales price.

In addition, there usually are nominal other fees and charges associated with transferring a title, such as for photocopying or filing.

Property taxes: Property taxes vary but are about 1. In Belize, property taxes outside cities are based on land value rather than the developed value of the property, to encourage development.

Property taxes on homes and other developed land even in cities are low, although the government has been increasing them in some areas.

Capital gains tax: There is no capital gains tax in Belize. Registration and Title There are three different real property title systems in Belize: Registered Land Act system, in which application for transfer is made, and a new Land Certificate is issued to the purchaser.

Belize is moving to this system throughout the country, but at present it is not yet available everywhere. Under this system, an application is made for title transfer and a new Certificate of Title is issued to the grantee.

The owner holds a Certificate of Title, and this, together with the relevant Land Register entries is the proof of ownership.

Conveyance system, which involves the transfer of land by conveyance and registration. This is the system used in much of the United States.

In order to assure that the seller actually owns the land, a title search must be made in the Lands Unit in Belmopan to unearth the chain of title and to uncover any encumbrances such as uncanceled mortgages.

This search usually is done by an attorney or a paralegal. Unfortunately, it is sometimes difficult or impossible to trace old conveyances with any degree of certainty of results, due to the condition of the index books.

Unlike the Torrens system in use in parts of the U. Under this system, the uncanceled charges or encumbrances and the transfers from the title are shown on the relevant Certificate, so no further search is normally needed before the new Transfer Certificate of Title is issued, following the application for transfer.

Which system you use depends on where your property is located. If for example your property is located in an area of Belize where the Registered Land Act system is in place, such as around Belmopan or in a planned subdivision, your property will be registered under that system.

Land in Belize is being put into this system area by area until eventually the entire country will be included in it.

Each year, more of Belize is converted to this system. Some property purchasers in Belize complain that it can take many months or even years for the Lands Department to provide them with their Certificate of Title.

Stewart Title, a U. Need for a Lawyer In Belize, attorneys remain trusted advisors. Fees are not all that different from what you would pay in a small or mid-size city in the U.

In any real estate transaction, you should have your own Belize attorney. The Belize government provides building lots and other small pieces of land to Belizean citizens on a lease basis.

After the Belizean clears the property and improves it with a building, he or she can apply for a conversion to a fee simple title.

However, some Belizean owners never get around to doing this or cannot afford the cost. Be sure that you are buying a fee simple, freehold property, not a leasehold property.

Again, this is an area where a Belizean attorney can help you. Financing It is difficult for a non-resident to get a mortgage loan from a bank in Belize for buying or building, so you should be prepared to pay cash, arrange owner financing or get financing through a loan from a non-Belize financial institution on your assets back home.

Acreage and building lots in Belize are often purchased on terms under an Agreement for Sale or Contract for Deed whereby the seller keeps title to the property until it has been paid for in full.

Residential property may also have owner financing, although commonly the lowest price will be for all-cash deals.

Terms were for up to 25 years at interest rates of 8. Belizeans did not seem to care much for most of these subdivisions, and many homes were never sold.

Some of the houses were poorly constructed and located in undesirable areas. In , the DFC ran out of financial string. As of this writing in , plans are under way to reorganize and restart the DFC.

They sell property put up as security for bank or other financial institution loans. Usually these are advertised in the weekly newspapers in Belize City.

Foreigners can participate in these auctions. There may be no particular problems in buying at a foreclosure auction, other than those ordinarily associated with auctions, such as the fact that among the savvy bidders may be local people who know more than you do about the property and its value.

However, in Belize sometimes the owners of the property will still be in possession at the time of the auction.

If so, you may face a real problem getting the owners out. Before putting up your money, you may want to consult with an attorney conversant with real estate property law see Appendix for a list of attorneys in Belize.

Elsewhere, rentals are much lower. In all areas, North American-style housing with air conditioning, modern appliances, and security systems will be several times more expensive than a traditional Belize rental, simple concrete or wood house, with only basic amenities and probably no appliances except for a butane stove and a small fridge.

Staying in a house or apartment rather than in a hotel can help you decide if Belize is really for you. Unfortunately, there are not a lot of short-term vacation rentals in Belize.

Most of them are concentrated on Ambergris Caye, but there are a few in other areas including Placencia and Corozal. In most areas, however, you can find a hotel with housekeeping facilities.

You may have heard about a program of homesteading or otherwise getting free land in Belize. Yes, there is such a program in place, but there are big catches: First, you must be a Belizean citizen or have lived in the country as an official resident for at least three years.

Second, land is only available in certain areas. Mainly it is small tracts or building lots. This is not the homesteading hundreds of acres of prime farm land that you read about in the your American history book.

Third, you have to lease the land from the government, clear it and actually construct a home. At that point, for a nominal amount you can buy the property from the government, and you will get title.

As a rule, you will get more for your housing dollar in Belize by building rather than buying a completed home. What Does It Cost?

Construction costs vary depending on such factors the cost of transportation of materials to the building site, the terrain and quality of work.

In Belize, construction costs are higher on the coast and cayes, because of the need to use hurricane resistant construction.

In the case of the cayes, it costs extra to transport building materials out to the islands by boat. Building costs also are higher in southern than in northern Belize.

Inexpensive building materials are more readily available in northern Belize since some can be imported from Chetumal, Mexico. Labor in Belize is much less expensive than in the U.

While labor may be cheap, jobs usually take longer in Belize. Workers may be skilled at construction techniques common in Belize but may lack knowledge about building in the American style.

Outside of urban areas, it is difficult to find qualified craftspeople such as electricians and plumbers. Building materials vary but are mostly no cheaper than in the U.

Also, locally produced plywood is roughly one-half the cost in the U. Cement is more expensive than in the U.

Flooring materials such as salt tiles from Guatemala and Mexico are moderately priced and of high quality.

At the bottom end, that would be a simple Belizean-style cinderblock house or frame construction, and at the top it would be high-quality concrete construction with hardwood floors and trim and with many custom details such as hand-made doors and windows.

Costs can vary tremendously from builder to builder. Regardless of where or how you build, you need to be on-site to manage and oversee the construction, or pay someone you trust very well to do that for you.

You may need two or more septic tanks for a large house. Of course, if you have a nose for saving money you can build for much less than that.

He collected building materials such as old planks and boards that were floating in the lagoon, scrounged others from old houses and did most of the actual construction work himself.

The charity organization Habitat for Humanity has constructed a number of affordable homes in Belize.

Habitat says the cost of a two-bedroom, one-bath sq. Hurricane straps and rafter ties are inexpensive protection against having the roof blown away.

Most insurance companies in Belize no longer will cover traditional thatch construction, and some also will not cover wood frame construction if the house is on the coast or cayes.

In the past, the only building codes in Belize have been those imposed by local municipalities. Many rural areas had no codes at all, and builders often ignored any existing codes.

However, Belize has developed a national building code calling for nation-wide standards of construction.

The Central Building Authority CBA is starting to take a tougher stance to ensure that builders follow the building code.

Now before construction for a house can be approved, drawings must be presented including an electrical plan approved by the Public Utilities Commission to the CBA, an application for construction made and the appropriate fees paid.

The CBA has authority nationally, although it works with local building authorities. Varying local codes apply.

For example, in Belmopan City only concrete new construction is permitted, not wood. More developed areas such as San Pedro and Belize City have stricter building permit and code systems.

In most areas now, a licensed electrician must sign off on the electrical work before the building can be hooked up to Belize Electricity Ltd.

Trailers and Manufactured Homes in Belize Trailer trash? Not in Belize. For another, the cost of shipping prefab units to Belize is high.

Perhaps most importantly, import duties make bringing in trailers an unattractive option compared with building locally.

However, some expats do decide to import prefab buildings. The original owner of the Nautical Inn beach resort in Seine Bight on the Placencia peninsula brought in prefab hexagonal buildings from North Carolina and had them set up on the beach by local laborers.

Mennonite Prefab: Cheap Alternative to Regular Construction An inexpensive alternative to building from scratch in Belize is to have a prefabricated Mennonite house set up on your lot.

Mennonite builders in Spanish Lookout and elsewhere build and sell small frame buildings, which they will deliver and install on pilings on your site.

This is an inexpensive and quick way to get a home up in Belize, and even some resorts such as 75 the Green Parrot on the Placencia peninsula use these buildings.

These buildings typically are made of local hardwoods and come with mahogany or glass louvered windows.

You can get them as unfinished shells or complete down to electrical wiring, ceiling fans and plumbing.

The cabins are set up on 6x6 posts 8 feet apart and about 3 feet off the ground. You may want to upgrade the specs to your own standards -- for example using 2x4 framing rather than smaller boards.

You can buy them from standardized plans or custom order. Prices vary, but here are typical prices, including set up on your mainland lot: 20 ft.

On the positive side, you won't be getting a bill for fuel oil or gas to heat your home. Very few houses in Belize even have a furnace or heater, since winter temperatures rarely fall even into the 50s.

If a cold front comes through, just put a blanket on the bed or pull on a cotton sweater. However, electricity it's usually called "current" in Belize is much pricier than in the U.

Belize Electricity, Ltd. The newly constructed Chalillo Dam in Cayo, along with three others, is supposed to help Belize become energy-independent, but at the cost of wildlife habitat.

So far, the dam has not lowered electrical costs in Belize, nor as it made the grid significantly more reliable. Outages and surges still occur fairly frequently.

If you're off the grid, as many still are in remote rural areas, either you do without power or run a diesel generator.

Wind, hydro, and solar energy are making some headway in Belize, though initial set-up costs are high. A small community of some 20 homes on Caye Caulker gen76 erates all its power from alternate sources, mainly wind turbines.

If you live in a rural area, you'll probably have your own water system, either a well or a cistern to collect rainwater, and a septic tank for wastes.

There was much talk about British cunning in looking after their own long-term interest in independent Malaya, but surprisingly little doubt among most local Chinese that the British could, and would, deliver on their promises.

Their lead- ers after independence have fought off the challenge of British-type democratic politics in favour of the bureau- cratic status quo of the multiracial commercial metropo- lis that the British left behind.

How well this amalgam of two different ideals will survive is yet unknown. The experiment reminds us, however, that Chinese who have lived under the British have found ways not only to adapt themselves to British rule but also, when appropriate or necessary, to appropriate some of the methods of gover- nance for their particular needs.

The Hong Kong story is more complicated but even more illuminating. In addition, there was a growing number of Hong Kongers who wanted either a British status quo or some kind of inde- pendence.

Their comments about what they thought of British rule, increasingly expressed in one of the freest presses in the world, ranged from tolerance to resigned acceptance and even open admiration.

The civil service was steadily localised as more and more Hong Kong Chinese were recruited and trained to take over when their British seniors retired and to run Hong Kong after they all left.

They were sensitive to the fact that they were serving on the frontline of the Cold War in Asia, and were mostly providing support to one side against the other.

In particular, they had to scramble to cope when millions across the border faced starvation in the early s and when the Cultural Revolution turned murderous and spilled over into the territory at the end of the sixties.

Understandably, they could not meet all the needs of the political refugees who were allowed to stay. But they did provide something that was nothing short of miraculous.

It is a paradox that while there was no democracy in Hong Kong, and it has only a very limited democracy today, it remains one of the freest societies in Asia.

Once again, the gov- erning system stood up to the strain and prepared care- fully for the uncharted autonomy that had been devised for Hong Kong through a newly invented Basic Law.

Although there remains skepticism about the long-term impact of that Law on the fate of Hong Kong within the PRC, the negotiations between Hong Kong and PRC representatives were conducted broadly along lines determined in the Sino-British Declaration of From until the actual handover in , we have a much more self-conscious record of how British rule appeared to a variety of Chinese both inside and outside China.

The details of that story still need to be told, but we know enough to conclude that the system of executive-led government that evolved under British management in Hong Kong has evoked admiration on the mainland.

I said earlier that British rule for the Chinese was ei- ther indirect or peripheral. This brings me to my last question: What did the Chinese learn from British rule?

Let me not suggest that the Chinese learnt a great deal from Britain. In my opening chapter, I made a brief comparison between Anglo-Indian encounters and Anglo-Chinese ones and said I would not try to ex- plain why the former seemed more fruitful than the latter.

But one obvious point from the examples of British rule I have just given needs to be mentioned. Where the Chinese have lived for long periods under British rule, as in Malaya and Hong Kong, they have not only been willing to accept that rule but even shown a readiness to emulate, or continue with, British ideals of modern government.

To rule This was particularly obvious when it was clearly in their interest to do so. And when this happened, most British laws and institutions have survived remarkably well, in- cluding those pertaining to education, transport, health, drainage, prisons, and even emergency regulations and internal security acts, which were in the main refur- bished after British departure.

If the factor of time was decisive, it may help explain why the British in India have left a fuller legacy.

In China, except for some peripheral areas, the British were not there for anywhere as long and were never in charge.

An early indication of this development may be found in the cooperation between Britain and the United States over Hong Kong since the s.

The story of the non-hostile and parallel de- velopment that both sides managed during that period will make fascinating reading when it is fully told.

In time, it may well be seen as the most sustained period of Anglo-Chinese understanding in the years of a wary relationship, a set of encounters that engendered valuable lessons about governance on both sides of that border.

Once it was clear by the s that Hong Kong would never be an indepen- dent country but would eventually return to Chinese sovereignty, there was a coming together of ends and means among all concerned.

That was inevitable once it became necessary to have a realistic timetable for the British to leave.

Certainly, each had begun with many prejudices and misunderstandings about the workings of government on the other side.

But there is evidence that both sides learnt a great deal from the years of give and take. They have found most of the institutions acceptable to the future Hong Kong they will have within China.

That meant that they stopped tolerating the illiberal poli- cies that they had been willing to overlook when they needed to have China on side.

It is interesting that British political ideals about parliamentary democracy had never been consid- ered on their own merits, but British governing prac- tices have attracted respect.

Success on the ground is still the best teacher for pragmatic Chinese leaders. Indirect and peripheral it may have been, but British rule as introduced in modernising cities seems to have life in East Asia yet.

The paradox is that many of the Chinese of that period found them- selves after graduation in the service of China, where they would have to learn the Chinese language on the job.

Apart from some of the most recent immigrants, hardly any of these Chinese now look to China as home. There may be appearing a new story of Anglo encoun- ters with Chinese who have settled outside China, one that is quite separate from those with the Chinese in China.

But, with the former, the story is not yet ready to be told. This has already had a considerable impact on the region.

This will challenge the Mainland Chinese to greater efforts to secure their maritime interests. But the lesson learnt goes well beyond the navy.

The Chinese have stressed again and again that, in building up their forces, they want no more than to defend their lands and their sovereignty.

They fear that the century of humiliation and grievance will not allow the new Chinese leaders to stop at defence. If anything, they feel insulted by the comparisons.

They point to the tradition of restraint whenever the Chinese empire was strong and to their defensive policies when China was threatened by alien conquest.

Also, the threat of an Anglo- American cordon allied to a potentially powerful Japan remains alive, even though the British role may now be much reduced in both Hong Kong and Taiwan.

In particular, they refer to the Chinese role in the Korean and Vietnam wars against what were in effect alliances led by the United States.

Certainly the animosity in Sino-Vietnamese re- lations over the islands that each side controls suggests that these claims are unlikely to be resolved easily.

The Chinese continue to deny any aggressive designs, assert- ing only their right to secure their borders, not just on land but also now at sea.

The full weight of the latter experience cannot, of course, be laid at the door of the British.

The total impact on China may be com- pared to the heritage of the British military tradition in India and elsewhere in the Commonwealth.

That heri- tage has made a difference to the armed forces of both China and India, albeit in different ways. How longer- term Chinese ideas about security and defence, as well as about global strategic thinking, have changed will call for close examination for decades to come.

What the Chinese learnt from the British about meth- ods of trading and how much it is now understood that business enterprises should be protected by law is still controversial.

But there is no doubting that changes in the role of Chinese merchants have been profound. Even if Chinese gov- ernments may never protect their merchants in the same way, the recognition that entrepreneurs deserve a higher social status is now well recognised.

The ongoing debates about public versus private management of both domestic and foreign trade have gone through many twists and turns.

They are likely to go on providing lessons both in merchant control and participation. What is intriguing is how the po- litical language is adapting to economic realities.

What inno- vations are possible when a state run by a communist party adapts more thoroughly to the dictates of a global market economy? The evidence of hard-nosed pragma- tism behind decision-making on the mainland is stronger than ever.

While this is familiar in the larger context of Chinese history and culture, never before have Chinese leaders recognised a connection between trading suc- cess and higher standards of living for all Chinese.

Nor have so many of them been so alert about the changing conditions of the world outside, not least the commu- nity leaders among the Chinese who have chosen to settle there.

It is probably not enough that trading practices conform to the global standards now dominated by English-speaking businessmen.

The British had, from the beginning, offered Christianity accompanied by better gunboats and en- gineering, and the Chinese chose the latter to defend Chinese civilisation against the former.

The decision led them to modern science, the force of which has shaken Chinese faith in older methods of technical innovation and ultimately in the older morality that supported their lives.

Although the im- pact on their spiritual life has been uneven, the systematic removal of barriers to nation-wide communication has had revolutionary consequences on the contemporary common language.

The extensive use of that language in all modern schools and all sections of the media has laid new foundations for a distinctive national identity.

It provides an undertow that chan- nels contemporary political behaviour, but this remains far from the liberal secular ideals that the British have cultivated for the past two hundred years.

How far this will go in transforming all aspects of Chinese thought and action is yet unclear, but there are signs that more doors to fresh rethinking about every aspect of re- ceived wisdom are being opened wide.

Recent changes in the respective academies, the Academy of Science and Academy of Social Sciences on the main- land and the Academia Sinica in Taiwan, suggest that new kinds of social science professionals will join the scientists and engineers as a respectable class before long.

British rule as an experience has obviously not run its course. A mandatory restriction on a hardship license granted by the registrar under this subparagraph shall be that such person have an ignition interlock device installed on each vehicle owned, each vehicle leased and each vehicle operated by the licensee for the duration of the hardship license.

A mandatory restriction on a hardship license granted by the registrar under this subparagraph shall be that such person have an ignition interlock device installed on each vehicle owned, each vehicle leased and defense , each vehicle operated by the licensee for the duration of the hardship license.

An aggrieved party may appeal, in accordance with the provisions of chapter thirty A, from any order of the registrar of motor vehicles under the provisions of this section.

The commonwealth shall not be required to introduce any additional corrobating evidence, nor live witness testimony to defense establish the validity of such prior convictions.

Where there has been more than one conviction in the same prosecution, the presentation , date of the first conviction shall be deemed to be the date of conviction under paragraph c hereof.

Evidence that the defendant failed or refused to consent to such test or analysis shall not be admissible against him in a civil or criminal proceeding, but shall be admissible in david nirenberg communities , any action by the registrar under paragraph f or in any proceedings provided for presentation for thesis in section twenty-four N.

Essay Writing Service Gumtree? A certificate, signed and sworn to, by a chemist of the department of the state police or by a chemist of a laboratory certified by the department of presentation public health, which contains the results of an analysis made by such chemist of the percentage of writing gumtree alcohol in such blood shall be prima facie evidence of the presentation defense , percentage of alcohol in such blood.

Such test shall be administered at the direction of for thesis a police officer, as defined in section 1 of chapter 90C, having reasonable grounds to believe that the person arrested has been operating a motor vehicle upon such way or place while under the of marijuana on working , influence of intoxicating liquor.

If a person refuses to submit to any such test or analysis after having been convicted of a violation of david nirenberg section 24L, the presentation defense , restistrar shall suspend his license or right to operate for 10 years.

The police officer before whom such refusal was made shall, within 24 hours, prepare a report of such refusal. Each report shall be made in cover letter front desk medical , a format approved by the registrar and presentation defense , shall be made under the penalties of perjury by the police officer before whom such refusal was made.

Each report shall identify the police officer who requested the chemical test or analysis and the other person witnessing the refusal.

Presentation Defense? Each report shall be sent forthwith to the registrar along with a copy of the notice of intent to essay suspend in a form, including electronic or otherwise, that the registrar deems appropriate.

A license or right to operate which has been confiscated pursuant to this subparagraph shall be forwarded to the registrar forthwith.

The report shall constitute prima facie evidence of the facts set forth therein at any administrative hearing regarding the suspension specified in this section.

The suspension of a license or right to operate shall become effective immediately upon receipt of the notification of suspension from the police officer.

A suspension for a refusal of either a chemical test or analysis of breath or blood shall run consecutively and not concurrently, both as to any additional suspension periods arising from the same incident, and as to each other.

At said hearing, there shall be a rebuttable presumption that said license be restored, unless the commonwealth shall establish, by a fair preponderance of the evidence, that restoration of desk medical said license would likely endanger the public safety.

In all such instances, the defense , court shall issue written findings of fact with its decision. Each report shall be made in a format approved by effect of marijuana the registrar and shall be made under the penalties of perjury by the police officer.

The report shall indicate that the person was administered a test or analysis, that the beginnings , operator administering the test or analysis was trained and presentation for thesis defense , certified in the administration of the test or analysis, that the test was performed in accordance with the regulations and standards promulgated by the secretary of public safety, that the equipment used for the test was regularly serviced and maintained and effect of marijuana on working , that the person administering the test had every reason to presentation for thesis defense believe the david communities of violence , equipment was functioning properly at the time the test was administered.

Each report shall be sent forthwith to the registrar along with a copy of the notice of intent to suspend, in presentation , a form, including electronic or otherwise, that the registrar deems appropriate.

A license or right to operate confiscated under this clause shall be forwarded to the registrar forthwith.

The license suspension shall become effective immediately upon receipt by david nirenberg communities of violence the offender of the notice of intent to suspend from a police officer.

The license to operate a motor vehicle shall remain suspended until the disposition of the offense for which the person is presentation being prosecuted, but in no event shall such suspension pursuant to this subparagraph exceed 30 days.

Each such report shall be made on a form approved by the registrar and shall be sworn to under the penalties of perjury by such police officer.

Such report shall also state that the person was administered such a test or analysis, that the operator administering the test or analysis was trained and certified in the administration of such test, that the test was performed in accordance with the regulations and presentation , standards promulgated by the secretary of public safety, that the equipment used for such test was regularly serviced and maintained, and that the person administering the narrative essay beginnings , test had every reason to believe that the equipment was functioning properly at for thesis defense the time the test was administered.

Presentation For Thesis Defense? The license to effect operate a motor vehicle shall thereupon be suspended in accordance with section twenty-four P.

If, after such hearing, the registrar finds on any one of the said issues in the negative, the registrar shall forthwith reinstate such license, permit or right to operate.

Typography In Critical History Review? The registrar shall create and preserve a record at said hearing for judicial review. Within thirty days of the for thesis defense , issuance of the final determination by the registrar following a hearing under this paragraph, a person aggrieved by service the determination shall have the right to for thesis defense file a petition in the district court for the judicial district in which the offense occurred for judicial review.

The filing of a petition for judicial review shall not stay the revocation or suspension. Of Marijuana On Working?

The filing of a petition for judicial review shall be had as soon as possible following the submission of said request, but not later than thirty days following the submission thereof.

Review by the court shall be on presentation for thesis , the record established at the hearing before the registrar. For text effective November 4, , see below.

Front Desk Medical Office? For text effective until November 4, , see above. The court shall set such financial and other terms for the participation of the defendant as it deems appropriate.

For text effective September 30, , see below. A summons may be issued instead of a warrant for arrest upon a complaint for front office a violation of any provision of this paragraph if in the judgment of the court or justice receiving the complaint there is reason to believe that the defendant will appear upon a summons.

Presentation For Thesis? For text effective until September 30, , see above. A summons may be issued instead of a warrant for arrest upon a complaint for a violation of any provision of this paragraph if in letter office , the judgment of the court or justice receiving the complaint there is reason to believe that the defendant will appear upon a summons.

The assessment shall not be subject to reduction or waiver by of violence the court for any reason. The sentence imposed upon such person shall not be reduced to less than one year, nor suspended, nor shall any person convicted under this paragraph be eligible for probation, parole, or furlough or receive any deduction from his sentence until such person has served at least one year of desk such sentence; provided, however, that the defense , commissioner of correction may on the recommendation of the warden, superintendent or other person in charge of model essay spm a correctional institution, or the administrator of a county correctional institution, grant to presentation defense an offender committed under this paragraph, a temporary release in the custody of an officer of model essay spm such institution for the following purposes only: to attend the funeral of a relative; to visit a critically ill relative; to obtain emergency medical or psychiatric services unavailable at said institution or to engage in employment pursuant to a work release program.

If it appears by the records of the registrar that the person so convicted is the owner of a motor vehicle or has exclusive control of any motor vehicle as a manufacturer or dealer or otherwise, the registrar may revoke the certificate of model essay spm registration of presentation defense any or all motor vehicles so owned or exclusively controlled.

The registrar, after investigation, may at any time rescind the revocation of a license or right to operate revoked because of a conviction of operating a motor vehicle upon for thesis any way or in any place to which the public has a right of access or any place to which members of the public have access as invitees or licensees negligently so that the lives or safety of the public might be endangered.

The provisions of this paragraph shall apply in the same manner to juveniles adjudicated under the provisions of section fifty-eight B of chapter one hundred and nineteen.

If the defense , court or magistrate certifies in writing that he is satisfied that the reasons relied upon are sufficient and that the interests of justice require the writing service , allowance of the motion, the motion shall be allowed and the certificate shall be filed in the case.

A copy of the motion and certificate shall be sent by the court or magistrate forthwith to narrative essay the registrar. A Massachusetts DUI OUI jury returned verdicts of guilty on charges of felony motor vehicle homicide, operating under the influence, and operating to endanger.

Superior Court of Massachusetts. October 16, P 25 b 2 On August 1, , after a two week trial, a jury returned verdicts of guilty on model essay spm , charges of felony motor vehicle homicide, operating under the influence, and operating to presentation for thesis endanger.

At about p. The truck was driven by the defendant, who was then on her way from her home in Ayer, via Route , to presentation defense Groton center.

Evan died of his injuries later that afternoon. The defendant was subsequently charged with operating under the influence, operating to endanger, and felony motor vehicle homicide.

An Essay History? The jury evidently agreed, and presentation for thesis defense , convicted the defendant of each of the charges against her.

The verdict of felony motor vehicle homicide G. See Note 1, supra. The evidence as to each of these findings is therefore reviewed in turn.

Evidence of Operating to typography an essay in critical history review Endanger. No third party witnessed the accident.

Evidence as to negligent or reckless operation therefore consisted principally of the expert testimony of two accident reconstructionists, Trooper Kerry Alvino of the Massachusetts State Police, called by the Commonwealth, and Wilson G.

Dobson, P. Of Marijuana Memory? Dobson opined that the physical evidence was insufficient to determine, with a reasonable degree of scientific certainty, the location of the presentation for thesis defense , impact.

Operating Under the Influence. The first two are depressants; the last, a narcotic. There was no direct evidence as to when the defendant had last taken any of the defense , scheduled medications; nor was there medical evidence e.

CVS Pharmacy records. CVS Pharmacy records for presentation defense the period May 26, and September 27, showed that the defendant had filled prescriptions for the scheduled medications on the following dates: Date Dosage Quantity.

Date Dosage Quantity. Although there was evidence see below that the cover medical office , latter three medications may affect driving ability, none is a controlled substance, or otherwise falls within the OUI and vehicular homicide statutes.

Testimony of Dr. The CVS records further showed that the effect , oxycodone prescription which the defendant filled on August 29 was written by Dr.

Andrew Abela. Abela, a dentist, testified that on August 24, , while the defendant was a psychiatric inpatient at Emerson Hospital, she made an emergency visit to his office for tooth pain.

He extracted a lower molar, and gave her the presentation , oxycodone prescription at that time. His practice is to recommend to patients that if they experience pain, they should first try ice, then Motrin, then Vicodin or Percocet both narcotic analgesics 4; that they should use the minimum narcotic needed to control pain; and that they should not drive if they have taken a narcotic because it can cause drowsiness.

Extraction of a lower tooth, and for thesis , smoking following the procedure the defendant is a smoker , both place the patient at increased risk for dry socket.

Package Warnings. Avoid tasks requiring alertness. Other side effects may include: stomach upset, blurred vision, headache, confusion, depression, impaired coordination, change in heart rate, trembling, weakness, memory loss, hangover effect grogginess , dreaming or nightmares.

In Critical Review? If these effects continue or become severe, contact your doctor. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

If any of modern typography these effects persist or worsen, contact your doctor or pharmacist promptly. Evidence as to Therapeutic and Side Effects.

Model Essay Spm? She also stated that she had been having trouble sleeping, and that the night before the accident, she had gone to bed about a.

Brower testified concerning the model essay spm , indications, action, and side effects of the medications the defendant had been prescribed.

Of the scheduled medications: 1. Oxycodone Percocet is essay beginnings a narcotic analgesic, derived from the opium plant and used for presentation defense moderate to cover letter front medical severe pain.

Side effects, which can occur in therapeutic doses, include sedation sleepiness or drowsiness ; nausea, stomach upset, and vomiting; impaired attentiveness, alertness, and vigilance; difficulty coordinating eye movements; and defense , light-headedness.

It metabolizes, and essay beginnings , affects the brain, quickly after ingestion peak effect occurring in an hour , but because its metabolites have similar effects and accumulate with repeated dosing, chronic use can produce longer-lasting effects after each dose.

Side effects, which can occur in therapeutic doses, include: impairment of presentation for thesis cognitive and motor functions, especially fine motor coordination; confusion and effect of marijuana , problems with thinking; drowsiness and for thesis , lassitude; dizziness, lightheadedness, and poor coordination.

Side effects, which can occur in therapeutic doses, include impairment and slowing down of mental and presentation for thesis , motor functions, and drowsiness.

Effect Of Marijuana? A single dose can affect the patient for up to 24 hours. Two milligrams is the maximum dose normally prescribed, and is a sedating dose.

Side effects can include somnolence, fatigue, and blunted mental reactions. Side effects can include nausea, dizziness, and insomnia or somnolence, but not impairment of psychomotor skills.

Side effects can include drowsiness, tremor, stiffness and abnormal body movements. Generally speaking, the presentation for thesis defense , three scheduled medications produce quick relief of acute symptoms.

Essay Writing? There could be other causes as well and patients vary in the severity of their reactions to writing these and other drugs , but any or all of the scheduled drugs are capable of for thesis defense producing these effects.

Topomax, Zyprexa, and especially Effoxor, however, are less potent, and model essay spm , much less consistently associated with these kinds of impairments, than are the scheduled drugs.

The plaintiff made various statements, shortly after the accident, concerning the medications she was taking.

In chronological order: 1. Adam Blumenthal, who appears to narrative essay have been the EMT to presentation for thesis whom Alcantara referred, testified with the aid of modern typography an essay in critical history review his report that the defendant told him she was on Effexor, Topamax, Ativan, and Zyprexa.

In her September 2, and beginnings , September 6, recorded statements to the Groton Police, the defendant said she had taken her medications the morning of the accident.

She stated that she had not driven, or been out of the david nirenberg communities , house, for two weeks prior to the accident excepting her stay on a locked floor at Emerson Hospital.

She listed, and presentation defense , displayed bottles of, Topamax, Zyprexa, Effexor, Nestabs a vitamin , and iron.

She said that the packaging for Topamax, Zyprexa, and defense , Effexor advised caution when operating heavy machinery, but that she had felt OK to model essay spm drive on presentation for thesis , September 1.

She never mentioned diazepam, lorazepam, or oxycodone in her statement to the police. Cover Front Desk Office? Melissa Heys, a nurse with the nearby Groton School, came on for thesis defense , the scene very shortly after the accident, and went to see if the defendant needed help.

She assessed her for head injury, and noted that she appeared alert, not drowsy, able to focus, oriented, unimpaired in model essay spm , speech, and able to follow the directions of the EMTs.

Steven Mickle, with the Groton rescue squad and a first responder, testified that the for thesis , defendant appeared alert, oriented, and able to follow instructions and to model essay spm respond to his questions.

On the other hand, Officer Hatch, a Groton Police officer since retired who was among the first responders, testified that he saw the defendant at the scene; that he has known her since she was a little girl; and that in his opinion, she was under the influence of something.

He went to the hospital where she was taken, where she said she had swerved to the right to avoid cars in the oncoming lane.

Hatch asker her if she remembered telling him she had swerved to the left; she said she did not.

Erratic Driving. There was also testimony from two witnesses who, the jury could have found, encountered the plaintiff minutes before the accident, between a mile and two away.

George Krusen and model essay spm , Barry Curcio, who were driving together south on Route in Ayer, encountered a truck coming toward them, driven by a woman at a high rate of speed in the opposite northbound lane.

As they and the truck approached one another at defense a curve in the road, the truck swerved into their lane and beyond, into the dirt by the wrong side of the road.

It did not slow down, and model essay spm , was in their lane for several seconds before veering back into the correct lane of travel.

Krusen, who was driving, slowed down and avoided a collision by model essay spm just a foot or two. Krusen the driver told the police he did not think the modern in critical , truck in the garage was the one he had seen on presentation , Groton School Road.

Modern An Essay History? Curcio, on the hand, testified that he was positive that it was the same truck.

The time, place, and for thesis , descriptions of the encounter were such that the essay , jury would have been warranted in concluding that the driver was the defendant, and that her near-miss with the Krusen-Curzio vehicle took place just before the accident with Evan Holofcener.

Renewed Motion for for thesis Required Finding. Letter Front Office? Latimore, Mass. I determined that although the evidence that the defendant was under the influence of any of the scheduled medications at the time of the accident was entirely circumstantial, there was enough to warrant submitting the case to the jury.

Basch, Mass. Of Violence? Both determinations require that I view the evidence in for thesis defense , the light most favorable to the Commonwealth.

Narrative Essay? Torres, 24 Mass. Virginia, U. Doucette, Mass. This was sufficient to convict for operating to endanger.

See, e. Siciliano, Mass. Bergeron, Mass. Vartanian, Mass. Eyewitness evidence as to the operation of the truck before the for thesis defense , accident was not required.

Gordon, Mass. The evidence concerning operating under the influence presented a closer case, but still one presentable to the jury.

Connolly, Mass. Stathopoulos, Mass. From the evidence summarized above, the jury could have concluded: 1. That the for thesis defense , defendant had been prescribed, had purchased, and thus had access to the three controlled medications; 2.

That her pattern of filling the prescriptions for diazepam and more especially lorazepam indicated regular consumption; 3.

Cover Letter Front Desk Medical? That lorazepam, even if consumed the night before, would still have affected her the for thesis , day of the accident; 5.

That the plaintiff was adequately advised of the sedating and effect on working memory , impairing effects of defense he controlled medications, such that her intoxication was voluntary see Commonwealth v.

Darch, 54 Mass. Wallace, 14 Mass. David Nirenberg Of Violence? As noted above, the case lacked direct evidence that the defendant had taken any of the for thesis defense , controlled medications recently enough to be impaired by effect of marijuana them, and for thesis , it lacked direct evidence of what concentrations she had of any of them.

From the evidence that was presented, however, the jury had enough to conclude that the defendant had access to the drugs; that she had taken oxycodone recently and essay , lorazepam both recently and presentation for thesis defense , regularly; that she appreciated the writing , dangers of the controlled medications, both medically and presentation for thesis , by the time she spoke to the police legally as well; and that her erratic and dangerous driving on of marijuana , the day of the presentation for thesis defense , accident lacked any reasonable explanation other than impairment by one or both of nirenberg these drugs.

This was enough to convict. The question of defense guilt cannot be left to conjecture or surmise. Commonwealth v. Gilbert, Mass. Motion to Reduce Verdict.

Rule 25 b 2 of the for thesis defense , Rules of Criminal Procedure provides as follows: Motion After Discharge of of marijuana on working memory Jury.

If the motion [for a required finding of not guilty] is denied and the case is submitted to presentation for thesis defense the jury, the motion may be renewed within five days after the jury is discharged and may include in the alternative a motion for a new trial.

If a verdict of guilty is returned, the judge may on motion set aside the verdict and order a new trial, or order the entry of writing service a finding of not guilty, or order the entry of a finding of guilty of for thesis any offense included in the offense charged in the indictment or complaint.

The Rule incorporates the statutory authority conferred by G. Modern Typography History Review? The postconviction powers granted by the Legislature to the courts at both trial and appellate levels reflect the evolution of legislative policy promoting judicial responsibility to ensure that the result in every criminal case is consonant with justice.

An Essay In Critical Review? Woodward, Mass. The judge, formerly only an umpire enforcing the presentation for thesis defense , rules, now must determine whether, under the special circumstances of this case, justice requires lowering the level of guilt ….

The facts, as well as the law, are open to consideration. Woodward, WL Mass. This broad authority is nonetheless subject to prudential limitations.

Keough, Mass. Carter, Mass. The defendant offers two reasons for defense a reduction of the verdict in this case, from felony to cover letter office misdemeanor vehicular homicide i.

The lack of any direct evidence, or of overwhelmingly compelling circumstantial evidence, that the defendant ingested any of the controlled medications during a relevant time period; or that she exhibited signs of intoxication on the day of the accident; or that her driving ability was actually impaired; and.

The evidence as to ingestion, intoxication, and for thesis defense , impairment is nirenberg of violence summarized above and need not be repeated here.

That said, there was a good deal of presentation for thesis defense circumstantial evidence which, taken in its entirety, is difficult to discount.

Perhaps the strongest single piece of evidence came, not from medicine or from pharmacology, but from physics and accident reconstruction.

As noted above, the essay beginnings , verdict-reduction power conferred by G. Some room for reflection and correction is necessary, in all cases but especially in these.

Its determination on the evidence presented in this case was not a simple or an easy task, to david communities be sure, but there is no reason to suppose that it was beyond the ability of the jury.

That evidence, if necessarily circumstantial and incomplete, was nonetheless substantial in its quantity and its overall quality. Trial presentations for presentation defense both sides were excellent.

The offense is operating under the influence. What is forbidden is not taking medications as prescribed; it is getting behind the wheel of a motor vehicle while impaired, whether by cover letter front desk these or by other, enumerated substances.

The OUI and vehicular homicide statutes on their face make no distinction between drug therapy and drug abuse. They instead require proof that the defendant operated a motor vehicle; that a listed substance impaired her ability to do so safely for operating under , and that she thereby caused the death of another person for vehicular homicide.

Impairment by a prescription drug may be as dangerous as impairment by presentation alcohol or a drug of abuse which for some drugs is precisely the reason a prescription is required.

The statute aims to keep the impaired driver off the road in either case. The date for sentencing remains November 5, at p.

A conviction for felony vehicular homicide requires findings both that the defendant was operating under the presentation defense , influence, and that she was operating to endanger and that her operation caused the death of another.

Misdemeanor vehicular homicide requires a finding either of operating under or operating to endanger, resulting in death.

Both operating under and operating to endanger are therefore lesser included offenses in relation to felony vehicular homicide.

The week that trial began I held an evidentiary hearing, over two mornings, concerning the presentation defense , admissibility under Commonwealth v.

Lanigan, Mass. Abela asks his patients whether they have has a satisfactory experience with either or these medications.

Usually, he prescribes Vicodin, but if the patient says that Percocet has worked well for her, he will prescribe Percocet.

He said they have no effect on your driving. Balser and the police witnesses were in agreement that the decision whether or not to test for intoxication is a medical one, made by the physician and not under the direction of presentation for thesis defense law enforcement.

Brower, of the calming and sedating effects of lorazepam and diazepam. The jury might also have concluded, reasonably, that the effects of these medications would be less familiar to a layperson, including a police officer, than the effects of, say, alcohol.

Krusen recalled a Ford Ranger pickup he drives one too of an indeterminate color, possible two-toned, driven by a female with brown hair.

The jury were instructed that the charges against the defendant all pertained to the accident with Evan Holofcener, not to the incident involving Krusen and Curcio.

Kirkpatrick, Mass. Here, there was evidence of ingestion of for thesis multiple controlled medications, but a single homicide resulting from a single operation of a motor vehicle.

Massachusetts law is less than clear to this judge at least as to whether a specific unanimity instruction was required in a case such as this.

Eight of these cases cited in note 12 to that opinion were homicides; the presentation for thesis defense , other two were drug cases, in which trafficking convictions were reduced to possession with intent to distribute.

Operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol and operating a motor vehicle under a suspended license.

Appeals Court of presentation Massachusetts, Suffolk. Argued February 7, Decided January 15, Esther J.

Horwich, Boston, for the defendant. Jeremy C. Bucci, Assistant District Attorney, for the Commonwealth.

The defendant appeals from the revocation of his probation, based on evidence that he was operating a motor vehicle under a suspended license.

Probation had been imposed on November 16, , in Brighton District Court, after the defendant admitted to sufficient facts to warrant a finding of guilty on effect of marijuana on working , a charge of operating a motor vehicle under a suspended license.

On January 2, , the defendant was stopped by the Mashpee police on his way home from a football game.

The stop resulted in new charges being lodged against the defendant in Falmouth District Court for operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol and operating a motor vehicle under a suspended license.

The new offense triggered the issuance of a written notice of writing a probation violation from the defense , Brighton District Court, stating the defendant was not in compliance with the terms of his probation because of the new complaint.

After a hearing on narrative , March 3, , the judge found that the defendant had violated the presentation , terms of his probation on the basis of his admission to the Mashpee police during his arrest that he had driven his car earlier in effect on working , the day.

The judge entered a guilty finding,1 and modified the david of violence , terms of defense probation by extending the probationary period to one year from the date of the hearing and imposing a suspended, ten-day house of correction sentence.

We affirm the revocation decision. We summarize the presentation defense , relevant facts as presented at the revocation hearing.

He was forced to steer his police cruiser to narrative the right in order to avoid being hit by a green sport utility vehicle that had crossed the center line.

Read testified at the hearing that he was unable to see who was driving or how many people were in presentation for thesis , the vehicle.

He turned his cruiser around and headed southbound on Route in letter medical , search of the vehicle.

Read found it parked at the side of the road. Read stopped, exited, and walked toward the defendant. As Read approached, the defendant walked to the passenger side of the vehicle, sat in the passenger seat, and began to look through the glove box.

Read asked the defendant where the presentation for thesis defense , driver was; the defendant did not respond.

Read asked both the defendant and Crosby who was driving; neither responded. Read observed food and a cooler with numerous beers in on working , it in the rear of the vehicle.

Read determined that the for thesis , defendant was the owner of the vehicle. Read determined that both the defendant and effect of marijuana memory , Crosby were under the influence of alcohol, and placed both in protective custody.

Officer Paul Coronella was called and arrived at the scene. En route to the station, Crosby had a conversation with Read in which Crosby stated that the defendant was the driver.

When Read arrived at the station with Crosby, he informed Coronella that Crosby had implicated the defendant as the driver.

Read obtained a signed, written statement from Crosby that the defendant was the for thesis , driver. After conducting sobriety tests, which he said the defendant failed, Coronella placed the defendant under arrest for operating the memory , motor vehicle on Route while under the influence of intoxicating liquor.

A breathalyzer test revealed the defendant to for thesis defense have a blood alcohol reading of.

Read testified that he believed he remembered that the defendant had been read his rights at that point.

On these facts, the defendant raises several issues implicating due process; we find no merit to presentation for thesis defense his contentions and narrative , we affirm.

Written Notification. We agree with the defendant that the written notice was limited on its face to the two charges filed in connection with the incident that occurred on Route , and that the notice of violation of probation did not include mention of his operating the cover office , motor vehicle on presentation for thesis defense , a public way earlier in the day.

We disagree. Durling, Mass. Flexibility is important both to insure the offender the opportunity inherent in the grant of conditional liberty that probation affords, and to insure the Commonwealth the ability to presentation deal expeditiously with a violation of that opportunity.

See id. See also Commonwealth v. Sheridan, 51 Mass. A probation revocation is not a criminal prosecution.

In this case, the written notice did not specifically state the basis upon which the judge based the medical , revocation.

In any event, assuming that the failure to specifically enumerate the misconduct on the face of the notice constitutes error, the issue remains whether the defendant was afforded due process.

We conclude that the for thesis , actions of defense counsel in introducing the issue at the inception of the hearing, and in model essay spm , vigorously cross-examining the officer on the issue, amply support the defense , conclusion that any error here was harmless.

With respect to for thesis defense the remaining issue, operating after suspension of license, she indicated a willingness to admit if the david , court were to accept a recommended disposition on the probation violation.

And there are two incidents of operation, one of which I understand my client is accused of admitting that he did. On the writing service gumtree , facts of this case, the defense , defendant is unable to of marijuana on working demonstrate prejudice resulting from any lack of notice, and this failure to presentation show prejudice is essay beginnings fatal to his claim of error.

See Delisle v. Commonwealth, Mass. Odoardi, Mass. Compare Commonwealth v. Streeter, 50 Mass. Exclusion of the evidence.

The defendant next contends that his admission to police that he had been driving earlier in the day should have been excluded because a the statement was made either prior to his being given his Miranda warnings or, if made after the warnings, his waiver was not knowing, voluntary, or intelligent due to his state of intoxication; b again due to his state of david nirenberg communities of violence intoxication, the statement was not made voluntarily for the purposes of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution and art.

We disagree with all three contentions. Narrative Essay Beginnings? Following the beginnings , rationale established in presentation for thesis , United States v.

Calandra, U. Vincente, Mass. See Commonwealth v. Olsen, Mass. Vincente, supra at , N. Simon next argues that the statement he made at effect on working memory the police station should have been inadmissible at the probation revocation hearing, on the.

Griffin, 19 Mass. In any event, even were we to essay conclude otherwise, the defendant is not entitled to relief.

In the context of a criminal trial, where evidence of nirenberg of violence intoxication has been presented, and for thesis , the voluntariness of statements is in issue, even where there is no question that Miranda warnings were given before a defendant made admissions, a trial judge is obliged to make an affirmative finding on the voluntariness of those admissions under the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments before a jury is allowed to consider them.

Van Melkebeke, 48 Mass. Mello, Mass. Connelly, U. Although we have found no case in Massachusetts that resolves whether a similarly careful inquiry to defense determine admissibility need take place on typography history , the bases of defense Fifth and Fourteenth Amendment due process at a probation revocation hearing, we find instructive the reasoning in the decisional law related to front Fourth Amendment violations.

See United States v. An Essay In Critical? Gravina, F. Compare United States v. Gravina, supra at 54, quoting from United States v.

James, F. Gravina, supra at See also note 9, supra. Further, the police had already placed the defendant under arrest for driving under the influence, and the record shows that their inquiry was targeted to elicit evidence in support of a conviction on that offense, rather than for the purpose of david nirenberg of violence eliciting information by which probation could be revoked.

See Colorado v. Essay Service? Twomey, U. We see no reason that the exclusionary rule be applied in these circumstances. Accordingly, the State has an overwhelming interest in being able to return an individual to imprisonment without the burden of a new adversary criminal trial if in fact [the probationer] has failed to cover letter medical office abide by the conditions of his [or her probation].

Brewer, U. We weigh this overwhelming State interest in admitting all reliable evidence against the deterrent purpose of the exclusionary rule.

Letter Medical Office? Olsen, supra at , N. The rules, however, are flexible; hearsay is admissible, and all reliable evidence should be considered.

Scarpelli, U. See Durling, supra at cover letter desk office , N. At a revocation hearing, due process has the ultimate goal of providing an presentation for thesis defense , accurate determination as to whether revocation is proper.

See Durling, supra at , N. An Essay In Critical History? Forde, Mass. Leonard, Mass. As there was corroboration in this instance, we need not reach the issue whether corroboration is in fact necessary for an admission in the context of a hearing on surrender.

As to the claim that the hearsay was unreliable, we note only that Read testified that he was present when the presentation for thesis defense , defendant admitted to driving earlier in the day, and that he had made a note of it in effect , his police report.

Read was present at the hearing and presentation for thesis , subject to cross-examination. The statement was an admission against interest made by the defendant to police officers at a time when the cover letter front desk medical office , officers were investigating him for another alleged crime, operating under the presentation , influence.

The defendant, though present in court, chose to remain silent. Declarations against penal interest are admissible for the truth of the matters asserted.

Cruz, 53 Mass. The hearsay was both credible and nirenberg , reliable.

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